Premier of Teiko
|Premier of the|
Federal Kingdom of Teiko
Executive Branch of the Teiko Government |
Executive Office of the Premier
(diplomatic, outside Teiko)
National Security Council
|Appointer||Prince of Teiko|
|Constituting instrument||Teiko Constitution|
|Inaugural holder||Himura Kenshin|
|Formation||22 December 1872|
The Premier of Teiko (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku-sōri-daijin ) or PT is the highest serving official in the Federal Government of Teiko and is considered as the head of the government. He is inaugurated by the Prince of Teiko after he is elected by the people via direct popular vote. He must also enjoy the confidence of the Central-46 to remain in office. He is the head of the Cabinet and appoints justices of the Supreme Court of Teiko and other floating commissioners as approved by the Teiko Royal Council. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet or Minister who Presides over the Cabinet.
The office was first introduced in 1872 during the statehood of Teiko under the then Empire of Japan. The office took its modern and current form after World War 2 during the promulgation of the 1946 Teiko Constitution. Terms and selection of the premier have varied greatly throughout history. Before 1985, the premier is selected among the members of the Teiko Royal Council. Current selection for the office took form only in 1985 after the 1984 Teiko Constitutional Crises with fixed six years in each term.
In all, 29 individuals have as premier. On 30 January 2010, Akashi Seijuro became the 29th and current premier. Inaugurated at age of 28, Akashi is the youngest democratically elected head of government of any modern state. He is also at the same time, the first openly homosexual head of government in the world at the modern era. On 26 November 2015, he was re-elected for his second term. The next premiership election is scheduled to take place on 24 November 2022.
- 1 Origin
- 2 Selection
- 3 Power and duties
- 4 Privileges of the Office
- 5 Honours and Emoluments
- 6 Post-Premiership
- 7 Timeline of Premiers
- 8 Lists of Teiko Premier
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
|This article is part of a series on the|
|Politics of the
Federal Kingdom of Teiko
The roots of the Office of Teiko Premier trails back in 1870 during the creation of ministerial cabinet upon the creation of the State of Teiko. Although, there was no explicit document that labels the office as Premier itself, the duties and responsibilities correlates that to the modern day Teiko Premier. Before 1870s, the highest office in Teiko after the Imperial Family of Teiko is the Grand Chancellor which supervises the original Teiko Royal Council.
Article IV, Section 4 of the 1986 Teiko Constitution sets the requirements to hold the office. A premier must:
- be a natural born citizen of Teiko;
- be at least 25 years of age before the day of the elections;
- be an incumbent member of the Central-46 at the time of the submission of his candidacy until the national elections;
- be a registered voter;
- be able to read and write;
- have been a permanent resident of Teiko for at least ten years;
A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of premier under any of the following conditions:
- Under the Article IV, Section 5 of the 1986 Teiko Constitution, no person shall be elected as premier more than twice. It further clarifies that any person who have served as acting premier for more than two years shall only be eligible to run for one more term.
- Upon conviction in impeachment cases, the Central-46 has the legal authority to disqualify aforementioned person from any federal office.
- Under the Article IV, Section 6 of the 1986 Teiko Constitution, no person who have swore allegiance to other countries and have rebelled against the country can become premier.
Campaigns and nominations
Elections and oath
The Teiko Premier is elected by the people via direct plurality majority voting system during national elections which occurs every six years. The Premier and Deputy Premier are elected separately and thus, it may be possible that two persons coming from different parties may win.
Tenure and term limits
According to the Teiko Constitution of 1986, a premier can be elected to a maximum of 2 terms with 6 years in each term - a term is defined as a whole six years in office. For person who have acted as de jure premier for more than 4 years will also be considered as one term.
Vacancy and disability
Vacancies in the Office of Premier may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office.
Article V, Section 4 of the constitution allows the Central-46 to impeach high federal officials, including the premier, for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." Article V, Section 5 gives the Central-46 Blue Ribbon Committee the power to investigate the official under impeachment through a trial as the official impeachment court. Impeachment is a long process of which voting shall be done in three separate occasions. An official maybe removed from office if in 2 of the 3 occasions, the person has garnered 2/3 majority to convict. No other body can interfere or restrain an impeachment court during investigation and resolutions of the Blue Ribbon Committee is absolute.
Article V, Section 6 also gives the Central-46 another way of removing the premier and the deputy premier from power through a loss of confidence or vote of no confidence. The vote of no confidence merely removes the official from power while impeachment removes the official from power with subsequent administrative or federal cases. It has to be taken note that at least 3/4 majority of the Central-46 is needed for an official to be removed through a vote of no confidence. A vote of no confidence may spring from lack of support from the legislative body while not necessarily an indication of high crime or misdemeanor.
Power and duties
The first power the constitution provides for the premier is the veto power. The presentment clause requires any bill passed by Teiko Royal Council to be presented to the premier before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the premier has three options:
- Sign the bill and the bill becomes a law.
- Veto the legislation, expressing any objections, the bill does not become a law and it is returned to the Central-46 for a fourth reading. The bill however can override the premier's veto by 2/3 majority vote.
- Take no action. In this instance, the premier neither signs nor vetoes the legislation. After 15 days, not counting Sundays, two possible outcomes emerge:
- If the council is still convened, the bill becomes a law.
- If council has adjourned, thus preventing the return of the legislation, the bill does not become law. This latter outcome is known as the pocket veto.
Veto power is limited to only in the approval and disapproval of the legislation, the constitution does not grant the premier any power to modify the bill for whatever reason the premier may deem so as necessary.
The bulk of the premier's power is derived from his legal authority to control and supervise the cabinet and other offices which constitutes the executive branch of the Teikonian government. The premier presides over all cabinet meetings and the constitution provides for that he may be able to appoint or remove cabinet officials with or without the approval of the Teiko Royal Council. The premier also exercises legal power to permit administrative actions against cabinet members. The premier may also issues executive orders that are grounded by Teiko's constitution and by-laws. Executive orders may be amended or lifted by a superseding premier and is reviewable by the Supreme Court of Teiko who has the power to struck down unconstitutional executive orders.
The premier is also responsible for appointing chairperson's of several key government offices such as constitutional commissions, government controlled corporations, government controlled project based organizations and others. The premier also appoints ambassador and other diplomatic corps. Appointments of for offices however all require confirmation from the Central-46.
As a member of the council, the premier maintains the roles and responsibilities of that as a representative. The premier may be able to present bill directly to the council in behalf of the cabinet. During voting when the council is convene and a quorum is secured, the premier also takes part in process of voting for the approval of the bill. However, the premier same as with the deputy premier while in office is excluded from any general elections. The premier may also be summoned by the council to provide reports and explanations as the council may deem necessary. By constitution, the premier is also required to submit to the council an annual review of its administration collaborative efforts and developments which is referred to as the "State of the Nation Address". The premier may also advice the Prince of Teiko to dissolve the council.
The premier has legal authority to nominate judges across the judicial branch of the government which also includes the Supreme Court of Teiko. The confirmation of this judges are done by the Judicial Bar Council of Teiko and the confirmed nominees are official sworn in by the Prince of Teiko. The constitution provides criteria for appointment which barres the premier from nominating judges without legal experience.
The premier may also invoke the state secrets privilege which allows the premier and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security. The premier may also be able to grant pardon, commutation, reprieve and amnesty which is absolute and cannot be questioned by any judicial and legislative body.
War and foreign affairs powers
The constitution clearly states that the Prince of Teiko is the official commander-in-chief of the Teiko Royal Military. However such responsibility might be delegated to the premier upon conferral of the Teiko Prince. In this case, while the power to declare was is vested in the council, the premier is ultimately responsible for the direction and disposition of the military. The present-day operational command of the Teiko Royal Military (belonging to the Ministry of Defense) is normally exercised through the Minister for Defense, with assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The premier also heads the Teiko National Security Council.
Along with the military, the premier also directs Teiko's foreign policy through the Ministry of Internal and External Communications specifically Department of Foreign Affairs. The premier is responsible for the protection of Teikonians abroad and of foreign nationals in Teiko. The premier decides whether to recognize new nations and new governments, and negotiates treaties with other nations, which become binding with Teiko when approved by two-thirds vote of the Teiko Royal Council. The premier however as legally allowed by the constitution have borrowing power which allows the premier to borrow money from creditors in behalf of Teiko with or without council's approval.
Privileges of the Office
The official office and residence of the Teiko Premier is called the Kōkyo (皇居) or Peoples' Palace. The original Kōkyo was located in Kaijo, the former capital of Teiko and it served from 1872 until 1990. During the construction of a new capital, the new building was designed in contemporary style and the former Kōkyo was turned into a heritage site. Kōkyo is located adjacent to the Teiko National Council Hall, the seat of Central-46.
Honours and Emoluments
Beginning in 1986, all living former premiers were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. Former Teiko Premier's continuously serve as members of the Central-46 for their district represented even after premiership while others become emissary for the current administration. There are currently seven living former premiers.
- Hiroshi Kamiya
- Nozomu Itoshiki
- Kouji Minamoto
- Sasuke Gemba
- Takashi Natsume
- Kisuke Urahara
- Izaya Orihara
Timeline of Premiers
Lists of Teiko Premier