|Motto: Peace and Prosperity
French: La paix et la prospérité
Māori:Te rangimarie me te whai
|Anthem: Our Home
|Recognised national languages||
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ethnic groups (2015)|
|Demonym||New Duvelander, 'Duves'|
|Government||Parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|-||Prime Minister||Randy Horne|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Independence||from United Kingdom|
|-||Dominion||17 November 1903|
|-||Statute of Westminster||3 May 1945|
|-||Unification Act||25 of March 1963|
|-||Current Constitution||30 June 1986|
|-||Unification Act 2015||19 May 2015|
297,020 sq mi
|-||2017 (Q3) estimate||18,979,823 (16 in AIN)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|-||Total||$856,123 billion (13 in AIN)|
|-||Per capita||$45,107 (5 in AIN)|
|HDI (2015)||.937 (3 in AIN)|
|Currency||New Duveland dollar (
|Time zone||NDST (UTC+11)|
|-||Summer (DST)||NDDT (UTC)|
|Date formats||dd-mm-yyyy, AD|
|Drives on the||Left|
|Internet TLD||.nd, .nc|
New Duveland (Officially "The United Commonwealth Realm of New Duveland, Rua Whenua and New Caledonia" in English, Royaume du Commonwealth Le royaume de la Nouvelle-Dúvlandé, Rua Whenua et Nouvelle-Calédonie in French and Te Ao Lahitaonga Kingitanga o Kāinga Motu, Rua Whenua me Hou Caledonia in Maori) is an Island country in the South Pacific Ocean. The country comprises of one main island with numerous smaller islands. New Duveland is situated within the Tasman Sea, some 350km away from Australia, but some islands, especially within the province of New Caledonia, are immediately south of Vanuatu. New Duveland developed a distinctive biodiversity of animal and plant life due to it's isolation; most notable are the large number of unique bird species. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions.
Melanesians were the first inhabitants of New Duveland, specifically within the island province of New Caledonia, whereas Polynesians settled the New Duveland mainland around 1450, developing a distinctive culture yet still maintaining close ties to the Maori in New Zealand, where there is a shared language and culture. The first non-Maori contact with New Duveland occurred when Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted and landed on the island in 1642 CE, around the area which is now known as Landing Creek, near the southernmost tip of the main island, and then continued to the north west coast of New Zealand.
New Duvelanders enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the world, and has one of the highest life expectancy in the Alliance of Independent nations as of 2015. The majority of New Duveland's population is of European descent; however the indigenous Maori are the largest minority, followed by Melanesians, Asians and other Pacific Islanders. English, French and Maori are the official languages, with English and French considered equal within all provinces, as required by the government. Maori is popular in regional areas, particularly the southern most portions of the main island, Norfolk and Puiatahi Island. Much of New Duveland's culture is derived from Maori and early British, French and other European settlers. Early European art was dominated by landscapes and the portraits of Maori. A recent resurgence of Maori culture has seen their traditional arts of carving, weaving and tattooing become more mainstream. The country's culture has also been broadened by globalization and increased immigration from the Pacific Islands and Asia.
New Duveland is organised into 7 provinces, 2 territories and 1 dependent territory. Nationally, executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister. Queen Elizabeth II is the country's head of state and is represented by a Governor-General. New Duveland is a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, ANDNZUS Commonwealth of Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the World Trade Organization and the United Nations.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Government
- 4 Provinces
- 5 Geography
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Economy
- 8 Transport
- 9 Intercity rail transport
- 10 Culture
New Duveland was named by Abel Tasman when he discovered the islands in 1642, naming it after Duiveland in the Zeeland province of the Netherlands, his homeland. Overtime the spelling and pronunciation was anglicized to 'New Duveland' once the British started colonization efforts on the islands, although the current pronunciation by native New Duvelanders is a mix of both English and French spellings, making 'New Dúvland' (new-doove-lənd) the most widely accepted pronunciation of the country.
Melanesians were the first inhabitants of New Duveland, although specifically within the island province of New Caledonia, where they did not manage to migrate south to the mainland where the most current reliable evidence strongly indicates that initial settlement of mainland New Duveland occurred around 1450 by Polynesians (Maori), this voyage concluded a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands. Over the centuries that followed these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi (tribes) and hapū (subtribes) who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight with each other. It is believed that the Maori populations in both New Duveland and New Zealand traded with each other well up to British and French colonization.
The original settlers quickly exploited the abundant large wildlife in New Duveland , such as Moa, which are large flightless ratites pushed close to extinction by about 1650. Moas and other large wildlife quickly became scarce, with few isolated population centres remaining upon European discovery. Māori culture underwent major change, with regional differences in a result of the declining mega fauna. In areas where it was possible to grow taro and kūmara, horticulture became more important. This was not possible in the south Motu Matua and Rua Whenua, but wild plants such as fernroot were often available and cabbage trees were harvested and cultivated for food. Warfare also increased in importance, reflecting increased competition for land and other resources. In this period, fortified pā became more common, although there is debate about the actual frequency of warfare. As elsewhere in the Pacific, cannibalism was part of warfare. Birds, fish and sea mammals were important sources of protein, specifically many species of Swamphen located across the mainland, Norfolk and numerous smaller islands, which the Maori were able to hunt as a reliable source of food. Some of these birds are still used as a food source today. Māori cultivated food plants which they had brought with them from Polynesia, including sweet potatoes (called kūmara), taro, gourds, and yams. They also brought with them and cultivated the cabbage tree, a plant endemic to New Zealand, and exploited wild foods such as fern root, which provided a starchy paste.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman first discovered the islands in 1642, naming the island group after Duiveland, an island in the north of Zeeland, the Netherlands, his homeland. It was later anglicized to New Duveland once the British started colonization efforts on the islands. The islands remained greatly unexplored until Captain James Cook came to the area, mapping the coastline of the main island after coming from New Zealand. The northern coast of the island was explored by Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse who claimed the northern portion of the island for France while Captain Cook claimed the southern portion for England. Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse later disappeared into the forests of the Great Tasman Range on an exploration voyage, looking for suitable areas for French colonization. What remained of him and his crew remains a mystery, some experts suggest they were captured by a group of Maori in the area, while there is now evidence that the crew tried to reconstruct their ship which crashed in the rocky coastline north of Léandry, with rotten wood and human remains discovered along nearby coastlines.
Settlement commenced in late 1700 along with New Zealand. New Duveland had a population of around 300,000 by the end of 1840 as many Europeans moved to the island for it’s large fertile areas ideal for European farming. This resulted in New Duveland surpassing New Zealand in population. New Duveland was then classified as a different colony from Australia in 1850, quickly followed by New Zealand in 1851. New Duveland, after becoming a separate colony was divided into 4 other divisions which later became provinces. Lapérouse and New Herault (French New Duveland) remained as an overseas territory of France up until 1903.
Gold was discovered in huge amounts in New Munster, Tasman and New Ulster resulting in huge economic and population growth, which is one of the main leading reasons as why the southern areas of New Duveland and more populated than the north. The cities of Tasbury, Leinster and Plymouth had the largest growths as money from the gold fields was poured into the capitals. Many smaller, regional towns close to the gold fields grew into the thousands due to the closer proximity to the fields. Many of the fields were full of shanty-towns, lasting for 15 years as people migrated from all over the world, especially Europe, Asia and North America. Growth in the FND (French New Duveland) also accelerated with smaller gold fields being discovered in the territory, although to a lesser extent. Tasbury became the richest city in the world for 2 years due to the wealth from the gold rush flooding into the city. During this period, large amounts of French settlers arrived in Lapérouse and New Hérault to take advantage of the vast lands suitable for farming, leading to extensive deforestation on the island, shown today by the extensive development of land outside of the Great Tasman Range.
Dominion of New Duveland
New Duveland was granted dominion status on 8th March 1890, resulting in the first Prime Minister being elected; Robert Stevens. The capital was chosen as Macquarie for it's central location between the 3 largest cities of the time. While construction of government buildings were underway, Tasbury was used as the centre for government operations, making it the de-facto, but not official, capital. The New Duveland Capital Territory was formed around the city.
First World War
New Duveland joined in the war in Europe alongside Australian and New Zealand troops, forming the ANDNZACS and were sent to Gallipoli as the first major engagement in the war by New Duveland. Remaining troops were sent into the German colony of Neu Westfalen on the 2nd of June 1916 with the goal of taking the island with little casualties but were met with fierce German resistance. It resulted in an estimated 12,000 New Duvelander and over 10,000 Neu Westfalen casualties. Huge national pride swept through the nation and Neu Westfalen was given to New Duveland as a mandate colony.
Post World War
New Duveland took in an incredible amount of refugees from war-torn Europe, allowing all refugees placement within the country no matter what their country of origin was. The government at the time encouraged people to settle into the agricultural areas of the country, which vastly increased New Duveland's agricultural activity, although many people still found homes in the cities, especially Tasbury, Leinster, Espérance and Toulon. With this alongside the post-war baby boom, New Duveland's population experienced massive growth.
Like most other countries, New Duveland was hard hit by the Great Depression of the 1930s, which affected the country via its international trade, with farming export drops then going on to affect the money supply and in turn consumption, investment and imports. The country was most affected around 1930–1932, when average farm incomes for a short time dipped below zero, and the unemployment rates peaked. Though actual unemployment numbers were not officially counted, no province was spared from the effects.
Unlike later years, there were no public benefit ('dole') payments – the unemployed were given 'relief work', much of which was however not very productive, partly because the size of the problem was unprecedented. Women also increasingly registered as unemployed, while Māori received government help through other channels such as the land development schemes organised by Ataahua Roimata. In 1933, 8.2% of the unemployed were organised in work camps, while the rest received work close to their homes. Typical occupations in relief work were road work, undertaken by 45% of all part-time and 19% of all full-time relief workers in 1934, with park improvement works (17%) and farm work (31%) being the other two most common types of work for part-time and full-time relief workers respectively. Major works were created to create more jobs for the population, such as the establishment of the National Freeway Network which circled the main island (with a separate network built in Norfolk), alongside an improving rail network that saw an increase in all the capital's rail and tram public transport and also the removal of all level-crossings within urban areas.
Second World War
When World War II broke out in 1939, New Duvelanders saw their proper role as defending their proud place in the British Empire. It contributed some 250,000 troops. They mostly fought in North Africa, Greece/Crete, and Italy, relying on the Royal Navy and later the United States to protect New Duveland from the Japanese forces. The 4th New Duveland Division fought in the Solomons in 1943–44, but New Zealand's limited manpower meant 3 Divisions could not be maintained, and it was disbanded and its men returned to civilian life or used to reinforce the 3rdd Division in Italy.
New Duveland troops were always sent alongside their Australian and New Zealand counterparts, most notably in Gallipoli. When Japan entered the war, New Duveland troops were brought back to help defend Australia in Papua New Guinea. The Japanese successfully entered the New Munster Sea and attacked many of the naval ships that were docked in Tasbury using mini subs. The subs were quickly found and destroyed by the New Duveland Navy. Troops were also sent out to Neu Westfalen to secure order as the war ravaged around the neutral country.
The armed forces peaked at 300,000 in September 1942; 275,000 served abroad, and 16,250 died.
New Duveland, with a population of 2.1 million, including 175,000 Māori, was highly mobilised during the war. The Labour party was in power and promoted unionisation and the welfare state. Agriculture expanded, sending record supplies of meat, butter and wool to Britain. When American forces arrived, they were fed as well.
The nation spent £875 million on the war, of which 45% came from taxes, 40% from loans and 15% from American Lend Lease. It was an era of prosperity as the national income soared from £228 million in 1937 to £412 million in 1944. Rationing and price controls kept inflation to only 14% during 1939–45.
The war also permanent changed gender roles within the country, as most women took up much of the workforce while the men were sent to fight, they continued to stay in the workforce once the war ended. This influenced much of New Duveland's society today, as both genders were encouraged to work and make their own living.
Cooperation with the United States set a direction of policy which resulted in the ANDNZUS Treaty between New Duveland, New Zealand, America and Australia in 1951, as well as participation in the Korean War.
After the war, New Duveland signed the ANDNZUS treaty and joined the United Nations in 1948. A Great influx of German, English, French and other eastern European countries migrated to New Duveland, through Government stratigies most of these immigrants were granted land in rural areas to increase the country's agriculture industry. Today, these settlers created small villiages and towns where their home language became majorities. Civil rights was a huge issue during this time too, and with an uproar by both Maori and New Duvelanders, Maori were officially recognised as the first people to arrive in New Duveland. Even though they were already given the right to vote alongside Women in the early 1900s.
Mainstream New Duveland culture was deeply British and conservative, with the concept of "fairness" holding a central role. From the 1890s, the economy had been based almost entirely on the export of frozen meat and dairy products to Britain and France, and in 1961, the share of New Duveland exports going to the United Kingdom was still at slightly over 29%, with another 22% to France with approximately 17% more going to other European countries. This system was irreparably damaged by Britain and France joining the European Economic Community in 1973, at a time of global economic upheaval regarding energy prices. Their accession to the European Community forced New Duveland to not only find new markets, but also re-examine its national identity and place in the world.
Following World War II, the Mitchell Labor government instigated a massive program of European immigration. All political parties shared the view that the country must "populate or perish." (referring to the dear of an Asian invasion) Mitchell stated a preference for ten British & French immigrants for each one from other countries; however, the numbers of British migrants fell short of what was expected, despite government assistance.
Migration brought large numbers of southern and central Europeans to New Duveland for the first time. A 1957 government leaflet assured readers that unskilled non-British or French migrants were needed for "labour on rugged projects ...work which is not generally acceptable to New Duvelanders, British or French workers." The New Duveland economy stood in sharp contrast to war-ravaged Europe, and newly arrived migrants found employment in a booming manufacturing industry and government assisted programs such as the Great Tasman Range Dam Scheme. This hydroelectricity and irrigation complex along the Great Tasman Range consisted of twenty major dams and eight power stations constructed between 1949 and 1974. It remains the largest engineering project undertaken in New Duveland. Necessitating the employment of 100,000 people from over 30 countries, to many it denotes the birth of multicultural New Duveland.
Some 3.9 million immigrants arrived between 1945 and 1985, about 40 per cent of whom came from Britain, Ireland and France. The New Duveland population reached 7 million in 1959.
In May 1958, the Macquarie Government passed the Migration Act 1958 which made it much easier for immigrants to move to, live and work in New Duveland.
Māori always had a high birth rate; although it was neutralised by a high death rate until modern public health measures became effective in the 20th century when tuberculosis deaths and infant mortality declined sharply. Life expectancy grew from 50 years in 1926 to 62 years in 1961 and the total numbers grew rapidly. Many Māori served in the Second World War and learned how to cope in the modern urban world; others moved from their rural homes to the cities to take up jobs vacated by Pākehā servicemen. The shift to the cities was also caused by their strong birth rates in the early 20th century, with the existing rural farms in Māori ownership having increasing difficulty in providing enough jobs. Māori culture had meanwhile undergone a renaissance thanks in part to politician Ataahua Roimata. World War II saw the beginning of a mass Māori migration to the cities, and by the 1980s 80% of the Māori population was urban, in contrast to only 20% before the war. The migration led to better pay, higher standards of living and longer schooling, but also exposed problems of discrimination. By the late 1950s, a protest movement had emerged to combat racism, promote Māori culture and seek fulfilment of the New Duveland constitution.
Urbanisation proceeded rapidly across the land. In the late 1940s, town planners noted that the country was "possibly the second most urbanised country in the world", with two-thirds of the population living in cities or towns. There was also increasing concern that this trend was badly managed, with it being noted that there was an "ill-defined urban pattern that appears to have few of the truly desirable urban qualities and yet manifests no compensating rural characteristics."
1963 Unification Act
The unification of the New Duveland islands grew increasingly popular with support drawn in from both the public of two previously independent governments. A proposal from the French New Duveland Overseas territory (FNDOT) was brought up in the territory's parliament in 1962, with the aim of unifying both territories into one nation. The bill's aim was to achieve the unification of New Duveland and the FNDOT. A survey was first introduced to the public with the results determining the outcome of the bill, with a majority of support seen in New Duveland, and most of the FNDOT. The bill resulted in the creation of the Commonwealth Realm of New Duveland, comprised of New Duveland and the FNDOT with two out of three subdivisions of the FNDOT becoming full provinces under the newly unified Commonwealth. The results from the survey in New Caledonia (then apart of the FNDOT) came out a majority NO, resulting in the territory splitting, with the majority yes subdivisions joining the Commonwealth. The one disagreement that came out of this was where the capital city should be located, either the existing capital of the dominion, Macquarie, or to create a new capital that incorporates both French and English aspects. It was decided that establishing a new capital would be too expensive, so to come to a compromise, Macquarie was chosen as the capital, however it was required that all public signs be in French, as well as English. This has lead to a city today that is 80% bilingual in both languages.
New Duveland has hosted various sporting events such as the 1990, 1970 and 1954 Commonwealth Games in Espérance, Leinster and Tasbury respectively, the 1984 Summer Olympics in Tasbury, and will host the 2022 Commonwealth games in Macquarie. New Duveland was involved in the Vietnam War, one of the leading forces behind Australia in the International Force for East Timor, and joined in the war on terror, supplying troops to the war in Afghanistan and the Iraq War. Generally New Duveland always fought alongside Australia and New Zealand and has so far joined any war that Australia has. Following two and half decades of economic reform and amidst booming trade with Asia, New Duveland avoided recession following the collapse of financial markets, in stark contrast to most other Western economies. In 2002 Margaret Forde became the first woman Prime Minister in New Duveland history and in 2010 Ruru Matiu became the first Maori Prime Minister of New Duveland. New Duveland has been praised by the international community for it's successful settlement of refugees into it's society, taking a vastly different approach than Australia's detention system, with refugees being placed into education programs that teach the qualities of New Duveland's culture, as well as either English or French being taught, depending on which province they are placed into. Refugees are placed evenly throughout all provinces in accordance to their population. The eruption of Mt Nui Ahi caused political turmoil when the government in charge failed to act in time, causing the public to shift it's favour to the Labor party, establishing a majority government in the next election. On the 19th of May 2015, the nations of New Caledonia and New Duveland united to form "The United Commonwealth Realm of New Duveland, Rua Whenua and New Caledonia", starting a new page in the nation's history.
New Duveland will also see rights to host the 2017 AFA Alliance World Cup, using venues across the country. 32 nations from the Alliance are expected to take part in the games, including close rivals Neu Westfalen and Jarraban.
New Duveland is a constitutional monarchy with a federal division of powers. It uses a parliamentary system of government with Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen of New Duveland, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen resides in the United Kingdom and is represented in New Duvelandby the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. The most notable exercise to date of the Governor-General's reserve powers outside the Prime Minister's request was the dismissal of the Phillips Government in the constitutional crisis of 1960.
The federal government is separated into three branches:
- The legislature: the bicameral Parliament, defined in section 1 of the constitution as comprising the Queen (represented by the Governor-General), the Senate, and the House of Representatives;
- The executive: the Federal Executive Council, in practice the Governor-General as advised by the Prime Minister and Ministers of State;
- The judiciary: the High Court of New Duveland and other federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Governor-General on advice of the Council.
In the Senate (the upper house), there are 74 senators: ten each from the provinces and two each from the mainland territory (the New Duveland Capital Territory), and the one dependent territory (Avaiki). The Oates Dependency is represented through the NDCT. The House of Representatives (the lower house) has 140 members elected from single-member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population, Elections for both chambers are normally held every four years, simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose terms are not fixed but are tied to the electoral cycle for the lower house; thus only 40 of the 74 places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution.
New Duveland'd electoral system uses preferential voting for all lower house elections with the exception of Avaiki and the NDCT which, along with the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with proportional representation in a system known as the single transferable vote. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over in every jurisdiction, as is enrollment. The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor-General has the constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister and, if necessary, dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament.
There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the New Duveland Labor Party and the Coalition, which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party. Within New Duveland political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left. Independent members and several minor parties have achieved representation in New Duvelander parliaments, mostly in upper houses.
Following the 2006 elections Ruru Matiu became the first female Prime Minister, as well as the first Māori Prime Minister in the nation's history, although her party lasted one term and gave way to the Liberal Party the next election. The most recent federal election was held on 2 March 2015 and resulted in a majority government for the Labor Party. Labor Party leader leader Randy Horne was sworn into office as Prime Minister by the Governor-General of New Duveland on 22 March.
New Duveland is considered as one of the most peaceful nations on the planet, and as so has a very favourable view from many other countries. In particular, it's relations with Australia, New Zealand, Neu Westfalen, Jarraban, Illium and Torainn has historically always been the closest, alongside the United States, France, and the UK.
New Duveland has signed many international treaties, such as: The Geneva Protocol, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling and also the Alliance of Independent Nations as well as many more. New Duveland is a member of the United Nations, the Pacific Forum and several other international organisations.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights in New Duveland have gradually progressed since the late-20th century, to the point where anti-discrimination laws protect LGBT people in all areas of employment and service access, and same sex couples enjoy all of the same rights and benefits as non-same sex couples, as same-sex marriage was passed by parliament in 2011.
Transgender New Duvelanders are able to change their legal gender in all provinces and territories and are recognised as their gender. The process of changing legal gender can come with legal and surgical boundaries, as is the case in Avaiki. Androgynous and genderqueer New Duvelanders are legally able to register their gender as 'non-specific' on personal legal documents related to sex.
New Duveland has been referred to by publications as one of the most gay friendly countries in the world, with recent polls indicating that a majority of New Duvelanders support same-sex marriage. Before the legalisation of same-sex marriage in 2011, regular polls conducted by Pew Research indicated that 80% of New Duvelanders viewed that homosexuality should be accepted by society, making it the fourth most supportive country in the world behind Spain (88%), Germany (87%), Canada and Czech Republic (both 81%) at the time. Because of its long history in regard to LGBT rights and its annual three-week-long Mardi Gras festival, Tasbury and Espérance has been named some of the most gay friendly cities in the country and in the world.
The foreign relations of New Duveland are influenced by its position as a leading trading nation and as a significant donor of humanitarian aid. New Duveland's foreign policy is guided by a commitment to multilateralism and regionalism, as well as to strong bilateral relations with its allies. Key concerns include free trade, terrorism, refugees, economic cooperation with Asia and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. New Duveland is active in the United Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations.
It has become steadfastly allied with Australia and New Zealand, through long-standing ANDNZAC ties dating back to the early 1900s, Torainn, Neu Westfalen, the United States, throughout the Cold War and since, as well as keeping close ties with it's former colonial leaders, the United Kingdom and France. With the rapid growth in trade relations with China, however, New Duveland has been debating whether to shift its emphasis to Asia.
New Duveland has been praised by the international community for it's successful settlement of refugees into society, taking a vastly different approach than Australia's detention system, with refugees being placed into education programs that teach the qualities of New Duveland's society as well as either English or French languages, depending on which province they are placed into. Refugees are placed evenly throughout all provinces in accordance to their population. With recent events in Syria, New Duveland has pledged to bring over 30,000 true refugees into the country.
Through the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, citizens of New Duveland are free to travel to either Australia and New Zealand (including it's in free-association states), coming into effect since 1973, and allows citizens of each country to live and work in the others. Other details of the arrangement have varied over time.
New Duveland's armed forces—the New Duveland Defence Force (NDDF)—comprise the Royal New Duveland Navy (RNDN), the New Duveland Army and the Royal New Duveland Air Force (RNDAF), in total numbering 62,327 personnel (including 42,553 regulars and 19,774 reservists). The titular role of Commander-in-Chief is vested in the Governor-General, who appoints a Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services on the advice of the government. Day-to-day force operations are under the command of the Chief, while broader administration and the formulation of defence policy is undertaken by the Minister and Department of Defence.
In the 2010–11 budget, defence spending was A$20.4 billion, representing the 14th largest defence budget. New Duveland has been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping, disaster relief and armed conflict; it currently has deployed about 2,500 defence force personnel in varying capacities to 12 international operations in areas including East Timor, Solomon Islands and Afghanistan.
New Duveland has seven provinces—New Munster (NMS), New Ulster (NUS), Lapérouse (LPR), New Hérault (NHR), Tasman (TSM), Norfolk (NFK) and New Caledonia (NCD)—one mainland territory—the New Duveland Capital Territory (NDCT)-and one dependent territory-Avaiki (AVA). In turn, these may be grouped into two distinct regions, the majority English speaking provinces (New Munster, New Ulster, Norfolk and Tasman) and the majority French speaking provinces (Lapérouse, New Hérault and New Caledonia). The NDCT is generally grouped into the English speaking region, but as the capital territory belongs to both regions, as it is considered a bilingual city (~80% of the city can speak both English and French fluently). In most aspects these two territories function as provinces, but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their parliaments. By contrast, federal legislation overrides state legislation only in areas that are set out in Section 49 of the New Duveland Constitution; provincial parliaments retain all residual legislative powers, including those over schools, state police, the state judiciary, roads, public transport and local government, since these do not fall under the provisions listed in Section 49.
The most populous and densely populated province is New Munster, also holding the most populous city, Tasbury. The largest province by area is Lapérouse, which is comparable in size to the Australian state of Victoria. New Caledonia is the least densly populated and smallest province by area.
Each province and territory has its own parliament—unicameral in Avaiki, and the NDCT—and bicameral in the provinces. The provinces are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as the Legislative Assembly; the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each province is the Premier and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each province by a Governor; and in Avaiki, the Administrator. In the Commonwealth, the Queen's representative is the Governor-General.
|Province||Abrv||Province Population||% of total population||Area km2||Density /km2||Capital|
Several islands within New Duveland's territory lay some hundreds of kilometres from the mainland, including, but not limited to: the Auckland Islands and Macquarie Island, part of New Ulster; Norfolk Island, part of Norfolk; Ball's Pyramid, Elizabeth Reef, Lord Howe Island and Middleton Reef, part of Tasman; the Matthew and Hunter Islands, and the Chesterfield Islands, part of New Caledonia.
Recent movements in Norfolk Island may see them become dependent territories within the Commonwealth Realm of New Duveland, alongside Avaiki.
New Duveland is comprised of one main island (Motu Matua), the island of (Norfolk/Rua Whenua), the island chain of New Caledonia as well as the and numerous smaller islands, all of which lie on the mostly submerged continent of Zealandia. The nation lies within the Tasman sea with coasts along the South Pacific and Coral Sea. Lancaster Strait splits Motu Matua from Norfolk, which itself has numerous islands. New Duveland has a total area of 769,279 km2 and has extensive marine resources. Motu Matua is the largest island within New Duveland, having a majority of the total land mass, population, resources, an extensive mountain range roughly central in the island, with 30 mountain peaks over 3,000m, followed by Rua Whenua (Which makes up around 97% of Norfolk's area), New Caledonia and Puiatahi Island. The Great Tasman Ranges hosts a large number of fresh high-altitude lakes which form from high rainfall and snow melt in the south, with hundreds of rivers flowing to both the east and west costs of Motu Matua. Rua Whenua has mountains no taller than 2,500 metres, the tallest of which is Totorewahuka, at 2,349m. Many volcanoes are spread across the island, mostly concentrated east of the Great Tasman Range with a few isolated ones, including Mount Abel, Mount Hukarere and Mount Tiango. The country's largest lake, Lake Mārū in Tasman holds the largest amount of Freshwater in the country. This varying topography is due to the boundary along the New Zealand and Australian tectonic plates. Many deep trenches lie off the east coast of Motu Matua. The Tallest mountain in New Duveland is Mount Luiz at 4,132m tall, it is one of the tallest mountains in Oceania, located in the southern region of the alps on the border of New Munster and New Ulster. The New Munster Sea is the largest area of Brackish water in the southern hemisphere, due to numerous high-flow rivers flowing into the sea, it has a salinity level of around 1.5%. The opening of the sea to the Pacific Ocean creates an illusion of a harbor, which lead to the original settlement of Tasbury.
New Duveland has a varied climate, with a tropical climate in New Caledonia, a subtropical climate in the northern mainland New Duveland to a temperate marine climate in the south, with annual temperatures ranging from 10 °C in the south to 25 °C in the north. Historical maxima and minima are 40.3 °C in Tenjioria, Tasman and −30.6 °C in Falls Creek, New Ulster. Conditions vary sharply across regions from extremely wet on the coasts of Motu Matua to temperate and dry around Portsmith. All the capitals (apart from Cascade) receive a yearly average in excess of 2,000 hours of sunshine. The province of Norfolk has a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1,400–1,600 hours; the southern areas of Motu Matua are the sunniest areas of the country and receive approximately 2,400–2,500 hours. The general snow season is late may until early October in Norfolk, with occasional snow falling along the southern areas of the Great Tasman Ranges within the same months. It is extremely unlikely, but not unheard of, for snow to fall anywhere outside these regions, especially in the winter months. Snow has reportedly fallen as far north as the mountainous areas of Lapérouse.
New Duveland's geographic isolation for millions of years and island biogeography is responsible for the country's unique species of animals and plants. They have either evolved from Gondwanan wildlife or the few organisms that have managed to reach the shores flying, swimming or being carried across the sea. About 76 percent of New Duveland's indigenous vascular plants are endemic, covering 1,632 species across 61 genera. The total number of animal and plant species is unclear, with many new species still being discovered today, an estimated 2000 species are yet to be discovered. The two main types of forest are those dominated by broadleaf trees with emergent podocarps, or by beech in cooler climates/higher elevations. The remaining vegetation types consist of grasslands. Before the arrival of humans an estimated 85% percent of the land was covered in forest, with only grasslands or high wet, infertile and volcanic areas without trees. Massive deforestation occurred after humans arrived, with around half the forest cover lost to fire after Polynesian and Melanesian settlement. Much of the remaining forest fell after European settlement, being logged or cleared to make room for pastoral farming, leaving forest occupying only 35% percent of the land, largely in the mountainous regions.
The forests are dominated by thousands of unique bird species, as the lack of large mammalian predators led to many flightless birds like the Moa, several species of Swamphens and also the Haast's Eagle to thrive. The arrival of humans, associated changes to habitat, and the introduction of rats, ferrets and other mammals led to the extinction of many bird species. The New Duveland Eagle (Similar to New Zealand and Neu Westfalen's Haast's Eagle became extinct shortly after Polynesian arrival, and the Moa bird became critically endangered, but through several government strategies the species has come back and is now of least concern. Swamphens are also common throughout the mainland provinces and southern islands, with some species being farmed for human consumption. Other indigenous animals are represented by reptiles (tuataras, skinks and geckos), frogs, spiders, insects and snails. Several species of bats were the only sign of native land mammals in New Duveland until the 1998 discovery of mouse-sized bones at least 10 million years old. Marine mammals however are abundant, with almost half the world's cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) and large numbers of fur seals reported in New Duveland waters. Many seabirds breed in New Duveland, a third of them unique to the country. There are also several species of native possums and other small marsupials. Since human arrival almost a fifth of the country's vertebrate species have become extinct, including at least forty two birds, five frogs, two lizards, three freshwater fish, and one bat species. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. However, New Duveland conservationists have pioneered several methods to help threatened wildlife recover, including island sanctuaries, pest control, wildlife translocation, fostering, and ecological restoration of islands and other selected areas. New Duveland is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection, ranking 12th out of 133 assessed countries.
The population of New Duveland is approximately 18 million. New Duveland is a very urban country, with 74% of the population living in just 20 cities, with 21.6% of the total population living in Tasbury. New Duveland cities rank highly on international livability measures. For instance, in 2010 Tasbury was ranked the world's 3rd most livable city and Macquarie the 9th by the Mercer Quality of Life Survey.
The life expectancy of a New Duveland child born in 2008 was 84.6 years for females, and 80.2 years for males. Life expectancy at birth is forecast to increase from 82 years to 87 in 2050 and infant mortality is expected to decline. New Duveland fertility rate of 2.8 is high for a developed country, with natural births account for a significant proportion of population growth. Subsequently, the country has a predominately young population compared to most industrialized nations, with 22% of New Duvelanders being 14 years-old or younger. By 2060 the population is forecast to reach 40 million, the median age to rise from 35 years to 42 years and the percentage of people 60 years of age and older to rise from 15% to 25%.
Ethnicity and immigration
In the 2011 census, 62.2% of the population identified ethnically as European, while 25.1% identified ethnically as Māori or Melanesian. Other major ethnic groups include Asian (6.1%) and Pacific peoples (5.9%) and 0.7% identified with other ethnicities. While the demonym for a New Duveland citizen is New Duvelander, the informal "Duvans" is commonly used internationally and locally.
The Melanesians were the first people to reach New Duveland in the province of New Caledonia, followed by Māori in the rest of the country and then early European settlers. Following colonization, immigrants were predominantly from Britain, Ireland and France and the rest of Western and Northern Europe due to restricted immigration policies. There was also significant Dutch, Portuguese, Italian, and German immigration, together with indirect European immigration through Australia, North America, South America and South Africa. The Great Depression allowed the strict policies to be relaxed and migrant diversity increased. In 2009–10, an annual target of 90-100,000 permanent residence approvals was set by the New Duveland Immigration Service, allowing for more than one new migrant for every 100 New Duveland citizen. 25% of New Duveland's population were born overseas, most of which reside in provincial capitals, although a significant amount of immigrants reside in Silver Shore and valery. While most have still come from the United Kingdom and Ireland (26%), immigration from East Asia (mostly mainland China, but with substantial numbers also from Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam and Hong Kong) is rapidly increasing the number of people from those countries. The number of fee-paying international students increased sharply in the early 2000s, with more than 75,000 studying in public tertiary institutions in 2015.
New Duveland is seen as an ideal spot for refugees to flee to, although no refugees have made by boat through Asia, many refugees are placed into New Duveland's society through education programs that teach the values of New Duveland's society and culture, as well as focusing on either English or French language classes. Between the 2014-2015 period, New Duveland accepted 30,314 refugees, ontop of the Government's guaranteed placement of another 30,000 refugees to ease the refugee crisis in Europe.
All education is free in New Duveland, including kindergarten, primary (Grade 0-6), secondary (year 7 -12), TAFE courses and university. Although universities require certain levels of academic achievement in order to get in, which depends on a student's final exam score. This is possible through higher taxes, and allows all students an equal chance at getting an education. School is compulsory for kids aged 5 to 16. Starting in kindergarten at age 4, moving to primary school the next year. Year levels in primary school go from Prep and then Grades 1 through to 6. Students then move to High school to complete years 7 to 12, where the final years (11-12) are optional, with other programs such as TAFE offering early exit courses. Subjects are evenly distributed through the year, with English, Maths, History, Geography, P.E, Science and 2 languages all required in the first 3 years of high school. French is taught from kindergarten to the end of high school in a majority of public schools in the majority English speaking provinces, with English taught in the same span in French speaking provinces. This complusory language learning program has increased the knowledge of each language across all provinces, with approximately 65% of the country being bilingual. Maori is also offered as an extra language course in most schools, while other languages are can be taught at separate institutions.
Up to year 8, subjects are given to students, when they reach year 9 they can choose from a range of subjects that the school can provide. There are many compulsory subjects which students have to learn, including English, French, Maths, and History. These subjects will allow students to get into any university of their choice if they pass over 70% of their final scores in that subjects. Any religion is banned from being taught in all public schools, although religious and/or private schools are exempt from this. Public schools are available for free for every student. Private schools can be a mix, or single gender schools and often require special entry tests or fees.
There are many universities in New Duveland, the most notable being the University of Tasman, Macquarie University and Leinster University. Each building in a campus may be dedicated to a group of similar subjects, such as Arts (Includes Fashion, Architect, web design), Industry (Manufacturing, heavy industry etc..) and more. The University of Tasman is the most presigious university in the country, having various campuses in every provincial capital and several large cities, along with some international campuses in Australia, New Zealand, Vietnam, the United States, the United Kingdom and France.
New Duveland has one of the highest life expectancy in the world. Life expectancy in New Duveland in 2011 was 80.1 years for males and 83.9 years for females, with a national average of 82. New Duveland has a high rate of skin cancer, one of the highest in the world below Australia, while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease, responsible for 6.2 per cent of the total mortality and disease. Total spending on health is around 9.9% GDP. New Duveland introduced a universal health care in 1973. Known as National Care, it is now funded by an income tax surcharge known as the National Care levy, which is currently set at 1.6 per cent. The provinces manage hospitals and attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and general practice.
Due to the high death rate form cigarettes, the New Duveland government has banned smoking in all public area in the country (including inside all cars, unless they are the sole occupant), and people born after 1998 cannot legally purchase cigarettes from any businesses. The goal of this is to have a smoke-free nation within 80 years or less. New Duveland is one of the first countries to put this in place, and it will supposedly bring a much healthier environment for everyone.
English is the predominant language in New Duveland, spoken by 62% of the population, French comes in at 30%, Maori at 6% with the reaming 2% being other languages. New Duveland English is similar to Australian and New Zealand English and many speakers from the Northern Hemisphere are unable to tell the accents apart, although New Duveland English has been greatly influenced by the amount of French speakers from the northern provinces. Before the First World War, Māori were discouraged from speaking their own language in schools and workplaces and it existed as a community language only in a few remote areas. It has recently undergone a process of revitalization, and was declared as one of New Duveland's official languages in 1963, following the unification of the island. It is spoken by 6% of the population. There are now Māori language immersion schools and three Māori Television channels. Many places have officially been given dual Maori, French and English names in recent years. New Duveland Sign Language is used by approximately 150,000 people and was declared as an unofficial language in 2006.
French is the official language of Lapérouse, New Hérault, and New Caledonia, which used to be part of a French overseas territory before uniting with New Duveland in 1963. 88% of the population in Lapérouse speaks French, but is also common in rural areas of other, nearby provinces to speak French, particularly in the provinces of Tasman and New Ulster.
New Duvelanders are renowned for their unique accent, with the English-speaking accent having a soft 'laid-back' french tone to it, whereas French-speaking New Duvelanders sound almost the same as an Australian speaking French, although it is much softer. Both languages have also had huge influence from the Maori language, and vise-versa, the Maori New Duvelander accent sounds almost the same to the Kiwi equivilent, but is slightly different as it has the same 'soft 'laid-back' french tone' to it as the English accent.
Christianity is the predominant religion in New Duveland, although its society is among the most secular in the world. In the 2006 Census, 46.5% of the population identified themselves as Christians, while another 44.7% indicated that they had no religion (up from 27.3% in 2000) another 8.2% affiliated with other religions. The main Christian denominations are Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism, Presbyterianism and Methodism. There are also significant numbers of Christians who identify themselves with Pentecostal, Baptist, and Latter-day Saint churches and the New Duveland-based Rātana church has adherents among Māori. According to census figures, other significant minority religions include Islam (3.2 percent), Hinduism (2.3 percent) and Buddhism (1.5 percent). The indigenous Māori and Melanesian Christians tend to be associated with the Anglican and Catholic churches, while Pacific Islanders tend to be Presbyterian, Methodist, Catholic and Latter-day Saint adherents.
A city in New Duveland is defined by a continuous urban environment with a metropolitan area of over 30,000 citizens, which has now come into debate with the recent connection of the Plymouth and the Silver Shore metropolitan areas, now forming one large, continuous metro area of over 1.7 million people. Currently 90% of the people in New Duveland live in urban areas. This is slowly rising as more and more people are moving into the capitals, as quality of life is much easier in the cities and citizens have access to many more things than those living in the country side.
Tasbury and Espérance have always been the most dominant and largest cities in the country, and are the location of much of the country's cultural and economic development compared to other cities. Historically, the city of Toulon used to be much closer in size to Leinster, but overtime did not see the same resource boom that Leinster did. However, recent mining exploitation in New Hérault has caused Toulon to swell in size, and is now one of the fastest growing cities in the country.
Loisieux is the largest non-capital city in the country, and was one of the prime competitors in becoming the new national capital in 1963, but was overshadowed by the government choice of Macquarie. Toulon is technically the largest inland city in the country, but it is debatable, as the mouth of the Devereaux River past Toulon's central core can be significantly influenced by tidal forces. Blois, also in New Hérault, is considered the true largest inland city.
| Largest cities or towns in New Duveland|
New Duveland National Statistics
|1||Tasbury||New Munster||4,001,325||11||Alexandria||New Munster||255,526|| |
|3||Leinster||New Ulster||2,016,039||13||Nouméa||New Caledonia||183,458|
|4||Toulon||New Hérault||1,448,460||14||Newcastle||New Munster||136,466|
|9||Blois||New Hérault||416,671||19||Albury||New Munster||102,632|
New Duveland has a very modern, prosperous and developed market economy with an estimated gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita of US$44,427. The currency is the New Duveland dollar. New Duveland was ranked 2nd in the 2015 Human Development Index within the AIN, 5th in the The Heritage Foundation's 2012 Index of Economic Freedom, and 15th in INSEAD's 2012 Global Innovation Index.
Historically, extractive industries and agriculture have contributed strongly to New Duveland economy, focusing at different times on sealing, whaling, flax, gold, kauri gum, and native timber. With the development of refrigerated shipping in the 1880s meat, fruit and vegetable products were exported to Britain and France, a trade which provided the basis for strong economic growth in New Duveland. High demand for agricultural products from the United Kingdom, France and the United States helped New Duvelanders achieve higher living standards than both Australia and Western Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1973 New Duveland's export market was reduced when the United Kingdom and France joined the European Community and other compounding factors, such as the 1973 oil and 1979 energy crisis, led to an economic depression. Living standards in New Duveland fell behind those of Australia and Western Europe, and by 1982 New Duveland had the 2nd lowest income of all the developed nations surveyed by the World Bank. Since 1985, successive governments engaged in major macroeconomic restructuring rapidly transforming New Duveland from a highly protectionist economy to a liberalized free-trade economy. Unemployment peaked above 10 percent in 1989 and 1991, following the 1987 share market crash, but eventually fell to a record low of 3.1 percent in 2007. The global financial crisis that followed had little impact on New Duveland, with the GDP staying relatively stable, but unemployment rose up to 6.5% in late 2009. As of May 2012, the general unemployment rate was around 3.9%, while the unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 21 was 11.3%. Like New Zealand, many skilled working New Duvelanders decide to take the trip to seek out the economic benefits of working in Australia, as New Duveland citizens can work and live in Australia, New Zealand, Jarraban and Torainn indefinitely. This is due to the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, which allows for the free movement of citizens of one of these countries to the other. This has lead to a tremendous amount of New Duvelanders leaving for Australia, which under the latest census, recorded over 1.2 million New Duvelanders living in Australia.
There are many forms of transport in New Duveland. New Duveland is highly dependent on road and rail transport. There are more than 200 airports with paved runways. Passenger rail transport includes widespread commuter networks in the major capital cities with less frequent intercity and interprovince networks.
Road transport is an essential element of the New Duveland transport network, and an enabler of the New Duveland economy. There is a heavy reliance on road transport due to large areas of low population density in significant parts of the country.
The dependence on roads has been less significant with every passing year, due to the continuing development of the New Duveland rail system, which is based off the original 18th century network, but now includes a system of high-speed rail, although this is just for the passenger service, with freight still significantly relying on roads.
New Duveland has the tenth highest level of car ownership in the world. It has three to four times more road per capita than Europe and seven to nine times more than Asia. New Duveland also has the eleventh highest per capita rate of fuel consumption in the world. All of the capital cities are rated among the highest in the world on car dependency.
There are 3 different categories of New Duveland roads. They are federal highways, state highways and local roads. The road network comprises a total of 650,000 km broken down into: paved: 250,000 km (including 3,132 km of expressways) unpaved: 400,000 km (1996 estimate) Lapérouse has the largest network, with thousands of arterial (major, primary and secondary) roads to add.
Tasbury, Espérance, Leinster, Toulon, Plymouth, Macquarie, Cascade and Loisieux have extensive electric commuter rail networks which have grown and expanded over time. New Duveland commuter rail typically operates with bidirectional all day services with Tasbury and Espérance's systems operating with much higher frequencies, particularly in their underground cores. Metro Tasbury operates the busiest system in the country with approximately 1 million trips per day. Espérance Rail operates a larger system albeit with a lower number of trips.
Trams and light rail
Trams have historically operated in many New Duveland towns and cities, with a significant portion of these shut down before the 1970s in the belief that more widespread car ownership would render them unnecessary. Only the larger cities of Tasbury, Espérance, Leinster, Toulon, Macquarie, the Silver Shore and Loisieux have retained their tram networks. Espérance's tram network is the second largest in the world. Plymouth, Cascade, Blois and Newcastle are just some of the cities that destroyed their tram networks in favour cars and busses.
Intra-city public transport networks
The following table presents an overview of multi-modal intra-city public transport networks in New Duveland's larger cities. The only capital without multi-modal networks is Nouméa, which relies entirely on buses. Cascade is planning a light rail line, which will link with existing bus services, and is expected to be operational in 2020. The table does not include tourist or heritage transport modes (such as the Sea World Monorail System in Sea World on the Silver Shore, or the tourist Alexandria Horse Drawn Tram.
|City||Buses||Urban rail||Light rail||Monorail||Ferry||Rapid transit|
Intercity rail transport
The railway network is large, comprising a total of 22,018km of track: 2,421km broad gauge, 10,040km standard gauge, 9,444km |narrow gauge and 112km dual gauge. Rail transport started in the various colonies at different dates. Although the various colonies had been advised by London and Paris to choose a common gauge, the colonies ended up with different gauges. However, all inter-province tracks have been standardised on standard gauge since 1925.
Inter-state rail services
Southern Cross Railways operates the majority of the main lines, including the Makar Line (Tasbury-Leinster), the Great West Coast Line (Tasbury-Macquarie-Plymouth-Loisieux-Espérance), the Great Tawhai line (Plymouth-Toulon) and the Doutre Line, between Espérance and Toulon. Most trains are run by Country Link (operated by Southern Cross Railways), which offer daily services to all the connected cities, often with multiple, direct-express routes from each city-centre to city-centre.
Intra-province and city rail services
There are various province and city rail services operated by a combination of government and private entities, the most prominent of these include New Munster Regional Link; Metro Tasbury; the Capital Network (Macquarie); Espérance Rail; Lapérouse Relier and the Leinster Metro network.
In Nofolk, 'NFKRail' operates a standard gauge freight and metro passenger system, that carries inter-modal and bulk mining goods. NFKRail is government owned (by the Province of Norfolk) and is going through a significant below and above rail upgrades with new locomotives and wagons entering service. Significant bridge and sleeper renewal has also occurred. The Norfolk Government also operates the 'South Coast Wilderness Railway' as a tourist venture over an isolated length of track on Norfolk's South Coast.
There have been numerous attempts at establishing ferries in New Duveland's rivers, however, only two have survived to this day. The McKenzie River in New Ulster that is navigable from Leinster to Rosewood, and the Devereaux River in New Hérault, which is navigable from Toulon to Blois. These networks are nowhere near the size they once where, but still offer daily cruises for both recreational and commuter services.
There are also two large recreational/commuter networks that connects the island provinces of New Caledonia and Norfolk, the Spirit of Cascade that connects Connacht, New Ulster to Cascade, Norfolk, as well as the Nouméa Esprit that connects Évrard with Nouméa.
The New Munster Sea also hosts the largest network of ferries in the southern hemisphere, with inter-city ferries offering services to Tasbury, Newcastle, Kaiaua, Romahapa, Parahaka and Albury. The lines all interconnect in Tasbury, at Eaenganui Quay, the busiest ferry terminal in the country.
Major New Duveland airlines operating domestic and international routes are:
- Air New Duveland
- Kāinga Motu Te Rangi
- Lapérouse Airlines
- Kapua Airlines
There are many airports around New Duveland paved or unpaved. A 2004 estimate put the number of airports at 322. The busiest airports in Australia are:
- Tasbury International Airport Tasbury, New Munster, TSB
- Aéroport International de l'Espérance, Espérance, Lapérouse ESP
- Leinster International Airport, Leinster, New Ulster, LST
- Aéroport International de Toulon, Plymouth, Tasman, PYM
- Plymouth International Airport, Espérance, Lapérouse, ESP
- Aéroport International de Loisieux, Loisieux, Lapérouse, LIX
- Silver Shore International Airport, Silver Shore, Tasman, SVS
- Macquarie International Airport, Macquarie, NDCT, MQR
- Norfolk Pirimia International, Cascade, Norfolk, CCD
- La Tontouta International Airport, Nouméa, New Caledonia, NMA
Airports with paved runways
There are 267 airports with paved runways:
- Over 3,047 m (10,000 ft): 10
- 2,438 to 3,047 m (8,000 to 10,000 ft): 10
- 1,524 to 2,437 m (5,000 to 8,000 ft): 120
- 914 to 1,523 m (3,000 to 5,001 ft): 117
- Under 914 m (3,000 ft): 12 (2014 estimate)
Airports with unpaved runways
There are 55 airports with unpaved runways:
- 1,524 to 2,437 m (5,000 to 8,000 ft): 5
- 914 to 1,523 m (3,000 to 5,000 ft): 43
- Under 914 m (3,000 ft): 7 (2014 estimate)
Early Maori settlers developed their own distinctive culture from the rest of Polynesia, having a striking resemblance to New Zealand, suggesting a close relation between the two islands. Social organisation was largely communal with families, sub-tribes and tribes ruled by a chief whose position was subject to the community's approval. The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Duveland and also influenced Maori culture, particularly with the introduction of religion. However, Maori still regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of their identity, and Māori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples. More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Duveland. Non-Maori Polynesian cultures are also apparent, with many different Polynesian festivals held across the country.
From the early 20th century until the late 1960s Maori culture was suppressed by the attempted assimilation of Maori into British New Duvelanders. In the 1960s, as higher education became more available and cities expanded urban culture began to dominate. Even though the majority of the population now lives in cities, much of New Duveland's art, literature, film and humor has rural and natural themes.
New Duveland cuisine is largely driven by local ingredients and seasonal variations. An island nation with an extensive agricultural economy, New Duveland yields produce from land and the sea. Similar to the cuisine of Australia and New Zealand, the cuisine of New Duveland is a diverse British-French-based cuisine, with Mediterranean and Pacific Rim influences as the country became more cosmopolitan.
Historical influences came from Māori culture. New American cuisine, Southeast Asian, East Asian, and South Asian culinary traditions have become popular since the 1970s.
In New Duveland households, dinner is the main meal of the day, when families gather and share their evening together. Restaurants and takeaways provide an increasing proportion of the diet.
One of the more popular desserts originating in New Duveland is the Pavlova, which is popular throughout the former British colonies. The Pavlova is a meringue dessert with a crisp crust and soft, light inside and was created in honour of the Russian ballet dancer Anna Pavlova during her tour of New Duveland. The dessert is a popular dish and an important part of the national cuisine of those countries, and with its simple recipe, is frequently served during celebratory and holiday meals. It is a dessert most identified with the summer time, but is eaten all year round in many New Duveland, Australian and New Zealand homes. Several other dishes are popular within New Duveland, one of the high-class meals available throughout New Duveland is the Confit of New Duveland Ocean Trout, which is also popular for high-dining tourists across many of the large cities.
New Duveland has a distinct coffee culture and is often cited as being one of the most developed and vibrant in the world. The development of the coffee industry has grown not from coffee chains but through independent cafés born out of early Greek and Italian immigration since the early 20th century. Many lane-ways in various New Duveland cities' CBDs and inner suburbs have been transformed into local coffee-house hot spots, hosting vibrant cultural activities all day and night.
Even before the Unification of the Realm of Lapérouse and New Duveland in 1963, French-inspired cuisine was becoming more and more popular among the mainland, as well as being reinforced in Lapérouse and New Hérault. Such dishes as Croque-monsieur, Steak frites, Quiches, as well as Canadian-inspired Poutine, all of which have acquired local alterations to the presentations and taste.
New Duveland music has been influenced by blues, jazz, country, rock and roll and hip hop, with many of these genres given a unique New Duveland interpretation. Māori developed traditional chants and songs from their ancient South-East Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique "monotonous" and "doleful" sound. Flutes and trumpets were used as musical instruments or as signalling devices during war or special occasions. Early settlers brought over their ethnic music, with brass bands and choral music being popular, and musicians began touring New Duveland in the 1850s. New Duveland began a recording industry from the 1940s onwards, many New Duvelander musicians have obtained success in Britain, France, the USA and neighbouring countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Some artists release Māori language songs. The New Duveland Music Awards are held annually by the Recording Industry of New Duveland (RIND); the awards were first held in 1954 and awards a Golden Disc as the award. The RIND also publishes the country's official weekly record charts (The RIND Top 50).
Radio first arrived in New Duveland in 1922 and television in 1960. The number of New Duveland films significantly increased during the 1970s. In 1978 the New Duveland Film Commission started assisting locally made films and many films acquired an international audience. Deregulation in the 1980s saw a sudden increase in the numbers of radio and television stations. New Duveland television primarily broadcasts American, British and French programming, along with a large number of New Duvelander and local shows. Between 2003 and 2008, Reporters Without Borders consistently ranked New Duveland's press freedom in the top ten. As of 2011, New Duveland was ranked 10th worldwide in press freedom by Freedom House, with the 3rd freest media in the Asia-Pacific region after New Zealand. There are several national daily newspapers, such as the Tasbury Times, The Age, Macquarie Weekly and many more. Many of these newspapers also run a weekend edition. These newspapers can come in English, French and occasionally Māori, depending on the area it is published. Radio stations are broadcast across the country, with hundreds of local radio shows as well as government funded ones, it is most common for these radio shows to run in the morning and afternoon peak hours, when they are broadcasted in cars.
New Duvelander architecture has generally been consistent with architectural trends in the wider Western world, with some special adaptations to compensate for distinctive New Duveland climatic and cultural factors. During New Duveland's early Western history, it was a collection of British and French colonies in which architectural styles were strongly influenced by British and French designs. However, the unique varied climate of New Duveland necessitated adaptations, and 20th-century trends reflected the increasing influence of American urban designs and a diversification of the cultural tastes and requirements of an increasingly multicultural Australian society.
Iconic New Duvelander designs include the UNESCO listed Parliament House in Macquarie, the Tasbury Royal Exhibition Building, the Chartres cathedral in Espérance, and the 15 remnant penal colony sites selected for World Heritage protection in 2010.
Many buildings and structures within cities and towns in the northern areas of New Duveland, which at the time were part of the French Empire, were largely designed to mimic designs of Paris, making the Second Empire and Beaux-Arts architectural styles popular among the large cities of the time, namely Espérance, Toulon, Valéry and Évrard. Espérance has the largest collection of Second Empire and Beaux-Arts architectural styled buildings outside of France.
Maori adopted writing as a mean of sharing ideas, and many of their oral stories and poems were converted to the written form. Most early English or French literature was obtained from Britain and France and it was not until the 1960s when local publishing outlets increased that New Duveland literature started to become more widely known. Although still largely influenced by global trends (modernism) and events (the Great Depression), writers in the 1930s began to develop stories increasingly focused on their experiences in New Duveland. During this period literature changed from a journalistic activity to a more academic pursuit. Participation in the world wars gave some New Duveland writers a new perspective on New Duveland culture and with the post-war expansion of universities local literature flourished.
There are many national festivals in New Duveland, reflecting the country's cultural diversity. Each major religion in New Duveland has a dedicated Public Holiday and is usually enjoyed by the nation as a whole as these days are usually those of sharing, giving and fun. If a public Holiday falls on a Weekend, they are usually moved to either Friday of the preceding week or Monday of the following week, though they are celebrated on the true day.
As part of the resurgence of Māori culture, the traditional crafts of carving and weaving are now more widely practised and Māori artists are increasing in number and influence. Most Māori carvings feature human figures, generally with three fingers and either a natural-looking, detailed head or a grotesque head. Surface patterns consisting of spirals, ridges, notches and fish scales decorate most carvings. The pre-eminent Māori architecture consisted of carved meeting houses (wharenui) decorated with symbolic carvings and illustrations. These buildings were originally designed to be constantly rebuilt, changing and adapting to different whims or needs.
Māori decorated the white wood of buildings, canoes and cenotaphs using red (a mixture of red ochre and shark fat) and black (made from soot) paint and painted pictures of birds, reptiles and other designs on cave walls. Māori tattoos (moko) consisting of coloured soot mixed with gum were cut into the flesh with a bone chisel. Since European arrival paintings and photographs have been dominated by landscapes, originally not as works of art but as factual portrayals of New Duveland. Portraits of Māori were also common, with early painters often portraying them as "noble savages", exotic beauties or friendly natives. The country's isolation delayed the influence of European artistic trends allowing local artists to developed their own distinctive style of regionalism. During the 1960s and 70s many artists combined traditional Māori and Western techniques, creating unique art forms. New Duveland art and craft has gradually achieved an international audience, with exhibitions in the Venice Biennale in 2002 and the "Paradise Now" exhibition in New York in 2004.
Māori cloaks are made of fine flax fibre and patterned with black, red and white triangles, diamonds and other geometric shapes. Greenstone was fashioned into earrings and necklaces, with the most well-known design being the hei-tiki, a distorted human figure sitting cross-legged with its head tilted to the side. Europeans brought English and French fashion etiquette to New Duveland, and until the 1950s most people dressed up for social occasions. Standards have since relaxed and New Duveland fashion has received a reputation for being casual, practical and lacklustre. However, the local fashion industry has grown significantly since 2000, doubling exports and increasing from a handful to about 50 established labels, with some labels gaining international recognition.
SportsRugby union, which is considered the national sport, as it attracts the most spectators out of any other nationally played sports. New Duveland is also a powerhouse in water-based sports, such as swimming and surfing. Golf, netball, tennis and cricket have the highest rates of adult participation, while netball, rugby union and football (soccer) is popular among young people. Around 64 percent of New Zealand adolescents participate in sports for their school. Victorious rugby tours to Australia and the United Kingdom in the late 1880s and the early 1900s played an early role in instilling a national identity. Horseracing is also a popular spectator sport and became part of the "Rugby, Racing and Wine" culture during the 1960s. haka, a traditional Māori challenge, before international matches. The annual Leinster Cup horse race and the Macquarie to Cascade yacht race attract intense interest.
New Duveland has competitive international teams in rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby league, and softball, and has traditionally done well in triathlons, rowing, yachting and cycling. New Duveland participated at the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1912 as a joint team with Australia and New Zealand, before first participating on its own in 1920. The country has ranked highly on a medals-to-population ratio at recent Games. The Ā iwi Pakari, the national men's rugby union team, are the most successful in the history of international rugby, with their main rivalry being New Zealand's All Blacks. They are also the reigning World Cup champions. New Duveland is known for its extreme sports, adventure tourism and strong mountaineering traditiosn. Other outdoor pursuits such as cycling, fishing, swimming, running, tramping, canoeing, hunting, snowsports and surfing are also popular. The Polynesian sport of waka ama racing has increased in popularity and is now an international sport involving teams from all over the Pacific.