List of Lower Columbian parliaments

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Parliament House in Kendall

The Parliament of Lower Columbia is the legislative branch of the federal Government of Lower Columbia. It is composed of the Federal Assembly, the lower house; the Council of States, the upper house; and the King. New parliaments begin when they are officially opened by the King after a general election and can sit for up to five years. The number of members in each house of Parliament varies depending on the population distribution between the states and the total number of states; when all seats are filled, there are currently 512 Assemblymen and 112 Councilors.

A total of 76 parliaments have sat since the Constitution of Lower Columbia was adopted in 1715. The current Parliament, the 76th, was opened on 16 February 2015. The following list presents all 76 parliaments chronologically, and includes each parliament's duration, government, and opposition. The earliest parliaments sat before the organization of political parties, and therefore lack information on their governments and oppositions. Governments are required to hold a majority of seats in both houses, and may therefore consist of multiple parties if no single party has a majority of seats. However, governments only had to hold a majority of seats in the Assembly during the 18th century; control of both houses simultaneously was not required until the 19th century. Where more than one party is listed for either the government, third-party opposition parties, or both, they are listed from most to fewest seats held.

List of parliaments

Monarch Diagram[nb 1] Parliament
Election
Sessions
Duration Government Opposition
Opened Dissolved Governing party/coalition Council seat count as of opening
Assembly seat count as of opening
Official Opposition party Third parties represented in Parliament
Edward 1st Parliament
Elected 1715
5 sessions
Nov. 4, 1715 Aug. 28, 1720 Non-partisans[nb 2] 21 Council seats
50 Assembly seats
none none
2nd Parliament
Elected 1720
5 sessions
Nov. 4, 1720 Aug. 29, 1725 Non-partisans 21 Council seats
51 Assembly seats
none none
3rd Parliament
Elected 1725
5 sessions
Nov. 5, 1725 May 31, 1730 Non-partisans 21 Council seats
55 Assembly seats
none none
4th Parliament
Elected 1730
4 sessions
Aug. 7, 1730 Jun. 30, 1734 Non-partisans 21 Council seats
55 Assembly seats
none none
5th Parliament
Elected 1734
5 sessions
Sep. 6, 1734 Jul. 1, 1739 Non-partisans 21 Council seats
61 Assembly seats
none none
John I
6th Parliament
Elected 1739
5 sessions
Sep. 7, 1739 Jun. 17, 1744 Non-partisans 21 Council seats
61 Assembly seats
none none
7th Parliament
Elected 1744
5 sessions
Aug. 24, 1744 Jun. 4, 1749 Non-partisans 21 Council seats
71 Assembly seats
none none
David I
8th Parliament
Elected 1749
5 sessions
Aug. 11, 1749 May 15, 1754 Non-partisans 21 Council seats
71 Assembly seats
none none
9th Parliament
Elected 1754
5 sessions
Jul. 22, 1754 Apr. 11, 1759 Tory Party[nb 3] 13 of 21 Council seats
45 of 84 Assembly seats
Democratic Party none
10th Parliament
Elected 1759
4 sessions
Jun. 18, 1759 Aug. 3, 1763 Tory Party 9 of 21 Council seats
43 of 84 Assembly seats
Democratic Party none
11th Parliament
Elected 1763
4 sessions
Oct. 10, 1763 Jul. 8, 1767 Democratic Party 9 of 21 Council seats
52 of 99 Assembly seats
Tory Party none
12th Parliament
Elected 1767
5 sessions
Sep. 14, 1767 Sep. 25, 1771 Tory Party 17 of 28 Council seats[nb 4]
57 of 104 Assembly seats
Democratic Party none
Nicholas
13th Parliament
Elected 1771
3 sessions
Dec. 2, 1771 Jun. 8, 1774 Democratic Party[nb 5] 11 of 28 Council seats
60 of 119 Assembly seats
Tory Party none
14th Parliament
Elected 1774
4 sessions
Aug. 29, 1774 Jul. 1, 1778 Democratic Party 18 of 28 Council seats
67 of 119 Assembly seats
Tory Party none
15th Parliament
Elected 1778
4 sessions
Sep. 7, 1778 Jun. 19, 1782 Democratic Party 17 of 28 Council seats
69 of 119 Assembly seats
Tory Party none
16th Parliament
Elected 1782
4 sessions
Aug. 26, 1782 May 31, 1786 Tory Party 14 of 35 Council seats[nb 6]
76 of 140 Assembly seats
Democratic Party none
17th Parliament
Elected 1786
3 sessions
Aug. 7, 1786 Apr. 15, 1789  • Tory Party
 • Independents[nb 7]
19 of 35 Council seats
71 of 140 Assembly seats
Democratic Party none
18th Parliament
Elected 1789
4 sessions
Jul. 6, 1789 Sep. 26, 1792 Democratic Party 22 of 35 Council seats
81 of 140 Assembly seats
Tory Party none
19th Parliament
Elected 1792
4 sessions
Dec. 3, 1792 Aug. 31, 1796 Tory Party 23 of 35 Council seats
92 of 164 Assembly seats
Democratic Party none
Michael I
20th Parliament
Elected 1796
3 sessions
Nov. 7, 1796 Aug. 7, 1799 Tory Party 20 of 35 Council seats
88 of 164 Assembly seats
Democratic Party none
Brandon I 21st Parliament
Elected 1799
4 sessions
Oct. 14, 1799 Jul. 20, 1803 Democratic Party[nb 8] 26 of 35 Council seats
95 of 164 Assembly seats
Tory Party none
22nd Parliament
Elected 1803
4 sessions
Oct. 10, 1803 Dec. 10, 1806 Liberal Party[nb 9] 16 of 35 Council seats (minority)
104 of 198 Assembly seats
Whig Party none
23rd Parliament
Elected 1807
3 sessions
Mar. 2, 1807 Dec. 20, 1809 Whig Party 15 of 35 Council seats (minority)
102 of 198 Assembly seats
Liberal Party none
24th Parliament
Elected 1810
4 sessions
Mar. 12, 1810 Sep. 1, 1813 Liberal Party 25 of 42 Council seats[nb 10]
125 of 198 Assembly seats
Whig Party none
25th Parliament
Elected 1813
4 sessions
Nov. 8, 1813 Aug. 27, 1817 Liberal Party 24 of 42 Council seats
131 of 246 Assembly seats
Whig Party none
26th Parliament
Elected 1817
4 sessions
Nov. 3, 1817 Aug. 15, 1821  • Whig Party
 • Frontier Party[nb 11]
27 of 49 Council seats[nb 12]
134 of 246 Assembly seats
Liberal Party none
27th Parliament
Elected 1821
5 sessions
Oct. 22, 1821 Aug. 9, 1826 Whig Party 31 of 49 Council seats
168 of 301 Assembly seats
Liberal Party  • Frontier Party
28th Parliament
Elected 1826
5 sessions
Oct. 16, 1826 Jun. 22, 1831 Liberal Party 33 of 56 Council seats[nb 13]
163 of 301 Assembly seats
Whig Party  • Frontier Party
29th Parliament
Elected 1831
3 sessions
Aug. 29, 1831 Jun. 4, 1834  • Whig Party
 • Liberal Party[nb 14]
48 of 56 Council seats
297 of 354 Assembly seats
Frontier Party none
30th Parliament
Elected 1834
4 sessions
Aug. 11, 1834 Nov. 29, 1837  • Liberal Party
 • Whig Party[nb 15]
45 of 56 Council seats
288 of 354 Assembly seats
Frontier Party none
John II
31st LC parliament.png 31st Parliament
Elected 1838
5 sessions
Feb. 19, 1838 Sep. 7, 1842 Whig Party 33 of 56 Council seats
189 of 354 Assembly seats
Liberal Party  • Frontier Party
32nd LC parliament.png 32nd Parliament
Elected 1842
4 sessions
Nov. 14, 1842 Aug. 5, 1846  • Whig Party
 • Frontier Party[nb 16]
32 of 56 Council seats
222 of 431 Assembly seats
Liberal Party none
33rd LC parliament.png 33rd Parliament
Elected 1846
4 sessions
Oct. 12, 1846 Jul. 31, 1850  • Liberal Party
 • Frontier Party[nb 17]
34 of 56 Council seats
230 of 431 Assembly seats
Whig Party none
David II
34th LC parliament.png 34th Parliament
Elected 1850
3 sessions
Oct. 7, 1850 Jun. 1, 1853 Whig Party 35 of 56 Council seats
264 of 511 Assembly seats
Liberal Party  • Frontier Party
35th LC parliament.png 35th Parliament
Elected 1853
3 sessions
Aug. 22, 1853 Sep. 12, 1855 Liberal Party[nb 18] 41 of 56 Council seats
309 of 511 Assembly seats
Whig Party  • Frontier Party
 • Silent Party
36th LC parliament.png 36th Parliament
Elected 1855
4 sessions
Dec. 3, 1855 Sep. 7, 1859 Royalist Party 39 of 56 Council seats
298 of 511 Assembly seats
Republican Party  • Liberal Party
 • Silent Party
37th LC parliament.png 37th Parliament
Elected 1859
4 sessions
Nov. 14, 1859 Aug. 12, 1863  • Royalist Party
 • Liberal Party[nb 19]
35 of 56 Council seats
295 of 511 Assembly seats
Republican Party  • Silent Party
38th LC parliament.png 38th Parliament
Elected 1863
4 sessions
Oct. 19, 1863 Jul. 31, 1867  • Republican Party
 • Liberal Party[nb 20]
36 of 63 Council seats[nb 21]
207 of 388 Assembly seats
Royalist Party  • Silent Party
39th LC parliament.png 39th Parliament
Elected 1867
5 sessions
Oct. 7, 1867 Jul. 17, 1872 Republican Party 39 of 63 Council seats)
218 of 388 Assembly seats
Royalist Party  • Liberal Party
40th LC parliament.png 40th Parliament
Elected 1872
2 sessions
Sep. 23, 1872 May 20, 1874  • Royalist Party
 • Republican Party[nb 22]
47 of 63 Council seats
291 of 400 Assembly seats
Liberal Party  • Marxist Party
Brandon II
41st LC parliament.png 41st Parliament
Elected 1874
4 sessions
Aug. 10, 1874 Jun. 26, 1878 Republican Party 38 of 63 Council seats
235 of 400 Assembly seats
Royalist Party  • Liberal Party
 • Marxist Party
42nd LC parliament.png 42nd Parliament
Elected 1878
5 sessions
Sep. 2, 1878 Sep. 20, 1882 Royalist Party 42 of 63 Council seats
241 of 400 Assembly seats
Republican Party  • Liberal Party
 • Marxist Party
Tristan
43rd LC parliament.png 43rd Parliament
Elected 1882
5 sessions
Nov. 27, 1882 Aug. 24, 1887 Royalist Party 43 of 63 Council seats
274 of 480 Assembly seats
Republican Party  • Liberal Party
44th LC parliament.png 44th Parliament
Elected 1887
3 sessions
Oct. 31, 1887 Jul. 2, 1890 Progressive Party 52 of 98 Council seats[nb 23]
305 of 597 Assembly seats
Royalist Party  • Republican Party
 • Liberal Party
45th LC parliament.png 45th Parliament
Elected 1890
5 sessions
Sep. 22, 1890 Sep. 18, 1895 Conservative Party 60 of 98 Council seats
184 of 314 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
46th LC parliament.png 46th Parliament
Elected 1895
5 sessions
Nov. 25, 1895 Aug. 29, 1900 Conservative Party 57 of 98 Council seats
175 of 314 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
47th LC parliament.png 47th Parliament
Elected 1900
3 sessions
Nov. 5, 1900 Jul. 8, 1903  • Progressive Party
 • Conservative Party[nb 24]
81 of 98 Council seats
247 of 314 Assembly seats
Republican Party none
Michael II
48th LC parliament.png 48th Parliament
Elected 1903
4 sessions
Sep. 28, 1903 Nov. 14, 1906  • Conservative Party
 • Progressive Party[nb 25]
86 of 98 Council seats
288 of 350 Assembly seats
Republican Party none
49th LC parliament.png 49th Parliament
Elected 1906
5 sessions
Feb. 4, 1907 Aug. 30, 1911 Progressive Party 55 of 98 Council seats
199 of 350 Assembly seats
Conservative Party  • Republican Party
50th LC parliament.png 50th Parliament
Elected 1911
5 sessions
Nov. 6, 1911 Sep. 6, 1916 Conservative Party 61 of 98 Council seats
232 of 409 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
51st LC parliament.png 51st Parliament
Elected 1916
5 sessions
Nov. 13, 1916 Aug. 31, 1921 Conservative Party 65 of 112 Council seats[nb 26]
238 of 432 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
52nd LC parliament.png 52nd Parliament
Elected 1921
4 sessions
Nov. 7, 1921 Aug. 5, 1925  • Progressive Party
 • Conservative Party[nb 27]
88 of 112 Council seats
396 of 493 Assembly seats
Republican Party none
53rd LC parliament.png 53rd Parliament
Elected 1925
4 sessions
Oct. 26, 1925 May 29, 1929  • Conservative Party
 • Progressive Party[nb 28]
92 of 112 Council seats
407 of 493 Assembly seats
Republican Party  • Workers' Party
54th LC parliament.png 54th Parliament
Elected 1929
3 sessions
Aug. 19, 1929 Aug. 31, 1932 Conservative Party 64 of 112 Council seats
263 of 493 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
55th LC parliament.png 55th Parliament
Elected 1932
3 sessions
Nov. 7, 1932 Jul. 24, 1935  • Progressive Party
 • Conservative Party[nb 29]
90 of 112 Council seats
294 of 387 Assembly seats
Republican Party  • Workers' Party
56th LC parliament.png 56th Parliament
Elected 1935
3 sessions
Oct. 14, 1935 Sep. 14, 1938  • Libertarian Party
 • Progressive Party[nb 30]
74 of 112 Council seats
247 of 387 Assembly seats
Conservative Party  • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
57th LC parliament.png 57th Parliament
Elected 1938
4 sessions
Nov. 21, 1938 Jul. 22, 1942 Libertarian Party 59 of 112 Council seats
200 of 387 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Conservative Party
 • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
58th LC parliament.png 58th Parliament
Elected 1942
4 sessions
Sep. 28, 1942 Jul. 31, 1946 Conservative Party 67 of 112 Council seats
244 of 415 Assembly seats
Libertarian Party  • Progressive Party
 • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
59th LC parliament.png 59th Parliament
Elected 1946
5 sessions
Oct. 7, 1946 Aug. 15, 1951 Libertarian Party 65 of 112 Council seats
229 of 415 Assembly seats
Conservative Party  • Progressive Party
 • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
Michael III
60th LC parliament.png 60th Parliament
Elected 1951
3 sessions
Oct. 22, 1951 Sep. 1, 1954  • Conservative Party
 • Libertarian Party[nb 31]
81 of 112 Council seats
318 of 461 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
61st LC parliament.png 61st Parliament
Elected 1954
5 sessions
Nov. 22, 1954 Sep. 30, 1959 Conservative Party 63 of 112 Council seats
245 of 461 Assembly seats
Libertarian Party  • Progressive Party
 • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
62nd LC parliament.png 62nd Parliament
Elected 1959
5 sessions
Dec. 7, 1959 Sep. 23, 1964  • Conservative Party
 • Libertarian Party[nb 32]
78 of 112 Council seats
293 of 461 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
David III
63rd LC parliament.png 63rd Parliament
Elected 1964
3 sessions
Nov. 30, 1964 Aug. 30, 1967  • Libertarian Party
 • Conservative Party[nb 33]
75 of 112 Council seats
357 of 531 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
64th LC parliament.png 64th Parliament
Elected 1967
4 sessions
Nov. 6, 1967 Jul. 21, 1971  • Progressive Party
 • Libertarian Party[nb 34]
78 of 112 Council seats
327 of 531 Assembly seats
Conservative Party  • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
65th LC parliament.png 65th Parliament
Elected 1971
5 sessions
Sep. 27, 1971 Sep. 22, 1976 Progressive Party 67 of 112 Council seats
258 of 450 Assembly seats
Conservative Party  • Libertarian Party
 • Republican Party
 • Workers' Party
 • Green Party
66th LC parliament.png 66th Parliament
Elected 1976
3 sessions
Nov. 29, 1976 Aug. 29, 1979  • Libertarian Party
 • Conservative Party[nb 35]
83 of 112 Council seats
308 of 450 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party
67th LC parliament.png 67th Parliament
Elected 1979
3 sessions
Nov. 5, 1979 Aug. 11, 1982  • Progressive Party
 • Libertarian Party[nb 36]
71 of 112 Council seats
274 of 450 Assembly seats
Conservative Party  • Republican Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party
68th LC parliament.png 68th Parliament
Elected 1982
4 sessions
Nov. 1, 1982 Sep. 10, 1986  • Libertarian Party
 • Conservative Party[nb 37]
73 of 112 Council seats
299 of 496 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party
Zachary
69th LC parliament.png 69th Parliament
Elected 1986
4 sessions
Nov. 17, 1986 Aug. 29, 1990  • Conservative Party
 • Libertarian Party[nb 38]
79 of 112 Council seats
366 of 496 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party
 • Columbia First Party
70th LC parliament.png 70th Parliament
Elected 1990
4 sessions
Nov. 5, 1990 Sep. 7, 1994 Conservative Party 64 of 112 Council seats
239 of 426 Assembly seats
Libertarian Party  • Progressive Party
 • Republican Party
 • Green Party
 • Columbia First Party
 • Workers' Party
71st LC parliament.png 71st Parliament
Elected 1994
5 sessions
Nov. 14, 1994 Aug. 4, 1999 Libertarian Party 59 of 112 Council seats
216 of 426 Assembly seats
Conservative Party  • Progressive Party
 • Republican Party
 • Columbia First Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party
72nd LC parliament.png 72nd Parliament
Elected 1999
3 sessions
Oct. 11, 1999 Aug. 7, 2002  • Libertarian Party
 • Conservative Party[nb 39]
82 of 112 Council seats
281 of 426 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
 • Columbia First Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party
73rd LC parliament.png 73rd Parliament
Elected 2002
5 sessions
Oct. 28, 2002 Sep. 5, 2007 Conservative Party 61 of 112 Council seats
258 of 469 Assembly seats
Libertarian Party  • Progressive Party
 • Republican Party
 • Columbia First Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party
74th LC parliament.png 74th Parliament
Elected 2007
4 sessions
Nov. 12, 2007 Aug. 31, 2011  • Conservative Party
 • Libertarian Party[nb 40]
75 of 112 Council seats
316 of 469 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Republican Party
 • Columbia First Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party
75th LC parliament.png 75th Parliament
Elected 2011
4 sessions
Nov. 7, 2011 Nov. 26, 2014[nb 41] Libertarian Party 62 of 112 Council seats
266 of 512 Assembly seats
Conservative Party  • Progressive Party
 • Republican Party
 • Columbia First Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party
76th LC parliament.png 76th Parliament
Elected 2015
2 sessions
Feb. 16, 2015 Incumbent  • Conservative Party
 • Columbia First Party[nb 42]
58 of 112 Council seats
258 of 512 Assembly seats
Progressive Party  • Libertarian Party
 • Republican Party
 • Green Party
 • Workers' Party

Notes

  1. The diagrams show the composition of each parliament, color-coded by party (click on an image to see its key). The Council's composition is shown to the left of that of the Assembly for each parliament; the Opposition's composition is shown above that of the Government.
  2. Lower Columbia had no organized political parties before 1754. Therefore, the first eight parliaments consisted entirely of non-partisan members.
  3. The Tory and Democratic parties were Lower Columbia's first political parties, first fielding candidates in the general election of 1754. While independents continued to be elected to Parliament (albeit in dwindling numbers), these two parties dominated Lower Columbian politics and exchanged control of the 9th-21st parliaments.
  4. The admission of Nicholasia as a state in 1765 added seven new members to the Council, beginning with the general election of 1767.
  5. In the wake of the Multnomah scandal, the Democratic government lost a vote of no confidence (the first to be taken in Lower Columbian history), triggering the early dissolution of the 13th Parliament.
  6. The admission of Klamath as a state in 1780 added seven new members to the Council, beginning with the general election of 1782.
  7. Although the Tories had a majority in the Council during the 17th Parliament, they had only a plurality in the Assembly. Therefore, they had to form a coalition government with enough independent MPs to gain a majority. This left the Democrats and a number of other independent MPs in the opposition. The coalition was increasingly unstable over the term of this parliament, and the party leaders asked King Nicholas to dissolve Parliament and call early elections in an attempt to resolve the growing deadlock.
  8. In the spring and early summer of 1803, growing disagreements between Democrats led to the government losing a vote of no confidence, bringing the 21st Parliament (as well as the Democratic Party itself) to an early end.
  9. After the 21st Parliament was dissolved, the Democratic Party split into two new parties, the Whigs and the Liberals. These two parties formed the Second Party System, which dominated national politics in the first half of the 19th century and controlled the 22nd-35th parliaments. The Tory Party dissolved late in the 21st Parliament's term and so did not participate in any later parliaments.
  10. The admission of Serpentia as a state in February 1810 added seven new members to the Council. The general election in Serpentia was synchronized with the rest of the country, despite statehood not having been officially granted yet, so that the future state would be represented in the 24th Parliament.
  11. The Whigs had only a plurality in the Council during the 26th Parliament, and therefore formed a coalition with the recently-formed Frontier Party to avoid having to form one with the Liberals.
  12. The admission of Bitterroot as a state in 1815 added seven new members to the Council, beginning with the general election of 1817.
  13. The admission of Oregonia as a state in 1822 added seven new members to the Council, beginning with the general election of 1826.
  14. In the 29th Parliament, the Whigs controlled the Assembly, but the Liberals controlled the Council. They were therefore forced to form a coalition, although it was rather unstable.
  15. In the 30th Parliament, the Liberals controlled the Assembly, while the Whigs controlled the Council. They were therefore forced to form a coalition, much like during the previous parliament. This coalition was even less stable than the previous one, and came to an end when its members could not pass a budget for 1838.
  16. The Whigs held only a plurality of seats in the Assembly in the 32nd Parliament, so they formed a coalition with the Frontier Party.
  17. In the 33rd Parliament, the Liberals formed a coalition with the Frontier Party, due to their having only a plurality of seats in the Assembly.
  18. In the summer of 1855, the Liberal Party split into three factions, which ultimately resulted in their government losing a vote of no confidence, bringing the 35th Parliament to an early end. Two of those three factions then formally split into the Royalist and Republican parties, which went on to dominate national politics until 1887.
  19. In the 37th Parliament, the Royalists held only a plurality in the Assembly, and so formed a coalition with the Liberals.
  20. In the 38th Parliament, the Republicans held only a plurality in the Council, leading them to form a coalition with the Liberals.
  21. The annexation of Upper Columbia in 1862, and its subsequent admission as a state, added seven new members to the Council. It also led to the legal doubling of the size of Assembly districts, beginning with the general election of 1863.
  22. In the 40th Parliament, the Royalists controlled the Assembly, but the Republicans controlled the Council. They were therefore forced into an unstable coalition, which ultimately collapsed in May 1874.
  23. Lower Columbia's political union with Saint Catherine in 1883 and the annexation of Gudland in 1887 resulted in the Council's membership expanding by 35, and the Assembly's membership by 117, with both changes taking effect with the general election of 1887. It also indirectly led to the nascent Progressive Party's first national victory, as well as the accompanying demotion of the Republican Party to minor party status.
  24. In the 47th Parliament, the Progressive Party held a majority of seats in the Assembly, but the Conservative Party held a majority in the Council. They were therefore forced to form a coalition, which was highly unstable and collapsed during its third session.
  25. In the 48th Parliament, the Conservatives controlled the Assembly, while the Progressives controlled the Council. They therefore formed another coalition, and although it was more stable than the previous one, it still collapsed after suffering a loss of supply.
  26. The annexation and admission of Calgariana and Edmontonia as states in 1913 added 14 new members to the Council, beginning with the general election of 1916.
  27. In the 52nd Parliament, the Progressive Party controlled the Assembly, but the Conservative Party controlled the Council. They were therefore forced to form a coalition, which eventually suffered a loss of confidence.
  28. In the 53rd Parliament, the Conservatives controlled the Assembly, while the Progressives controlled the Council. They therefore formed another coalition, which collapsed during its fourth session.
  29. In the 55th Parliament, the Progressives controlled the Assembly, but the Conservatives controlled the Council. They therefore formed a coalition, which was unstable and eventually collapsed.
  30. In the 53rd Parliament, the newly-formed Libertarian Party controlled the Assembly, while the Progressive Party controlled the Council. They therefore formed a coalition.
  31. In the 60th Parliament, the Conservatives held a majority in the Council, but only a plurality in the Assembly. They therefore formed a coalition with the Libertarians.
  32. In the 62nd Parliament, the Conservatives were supported by the Libertarians in the Council, where they lacked an absolute majority. This de facto coalition was never made official, but was widely recognized as such at the time.
  33. In the 63rd Parliament, the Libertarians, who held a majority in the Assembly, formed a coalition with the Conservatives to wield a majority in the Council.
  34. In the 64th Parliament, the Progressives controlled the Assembly, but the Libertarians controlled the Council. They therefore formed a coalition, which ended when the government called early elections.
  35. In the 66th Parliament, the Libertarians controlled the Council, but relied on the Conservatives to form a majority in the Assembly as a coalition.
  36. In the 67th Parliament, the Progressives held only pluralities in each chamber. They therefore formed a coalition with the Libertarians, which ended with a vote of no confidence.
  37. In the 68th Parliament, the Libertarians, who only held a majority in the Assembly, formed a coalition with the Conservatives to create a majority in the Council.
  38. In the 69th Parliament, the Conservatives held a majority in the Council, but only a plurality in the Assembly. To form a majority government, they formed a coalition with the Libertarians.
  39. In the 72nd Parliament, the Libertarians controlled the Council, but lacked a majority in the Assembly. They therefore formed a coalition with the Conservatives.
  40. In the 74th Parliament, the Conservatives held only pluralities in each chamber. To form a working government, they established a coalition with the Libertarians.
  41. The 75th Parliament was dissolved after the Libertarian government's proposed budget failed in the Assembly.
  42. In the 76th Parliament, the Conservatives are short of majorities in both the Assembly and the Council. Their coalition with the Firsties gives them a slim majority.