Karasem

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Republic of Karasem
Republik Karasem

Flag Coat of Arms
Motto: Persatuan, Keberagaman, Kemakmuran, Maju
United, Diversity, Prosperity, Educated
Anthem: Untuk Negara kita
For our Country
Location Southeast Asia
CapitalKota Baru
Largest Meriah
Official languages Karaseman Malay
Demonym Karaseman
Government Constitutional Republic
 -  President Widjojo Raharjo
 -  Vice President Agus Syarifudin
Legislature National Representative Committee (MPR)
 -  Upper house Representative Senate (DPR)
 -  Lower house Regional Representative (DPD)
National Dates
 -  Established day February 28 1942 
 -  Admission to Independence December 27 1949 
Area
 -  328,238 km2
126,733 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 6.8
Population
 -  2017 estimate 99,482,093
 -  2010 census 92,320,188
 -  Density 281/km2
727.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $ 1,020,487,466,807
 -  Per capita $ 11,049
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $ 554,160,364,834
 -  Per capita $ 6002
Gini (2017)41.2
medium · 2
HDI (2017)0.716
high
Currency Rupka (Rk)
Time zone (TUC+7)
Drives on the left
Calling code +67
Internet TLD .rk

The Republic of Karasem (Karaseman: Republik Karasem) is a country in the Southeast Asia. It consists of an archipelago in the South China Sea. The nation is located in the heart of Southeast Asia. Its neighbors are Indonesia in the south and southwest, Singapore and Malaysia in the west and Thailand, Vietnam and Laos in the North. The capital of Karasem is in Kota Baru which located within Cibebek Province. The largest city in Karasem is Meriah in North Cikulon Province, followed by Cibebek and Medang.

Republic of Karasem is a presidential republic country which president run as the executive power and national representative as legislative power. The current leader is President Widjojo Raharjo who was elected in 2017 from the Democrats Party of Karasem.

Karasem is a devoloping country in the transition into market economy. With GDP over 1 trillion, Karasem is one of the largest economy power in Southeast Asia, as well as being part of ASEAN and Next Eleven with its economy based on the mining (natural gas, oil), trading, agriculture and tourism. Meriah as the largest city of Karasem host various international corporations and industries.

Karasem has population 92,320,188 as for 2010 census result with largest city, Meriah has population 8 millions people in 2010 while its metropolitan area, Greater Meriah-Muara Karang has population over 17 millions people making it the 3rd largest in Southeast Asia after Jakarta and Manila. Karasem has a very diverse demographic consisting of Malays as the indigenous population of Karasem and the majority ethnic making 45% of national population, Javanese people making about 24% of population, Keshanese making the third largest consisting 6.77% of population while the major minorities consist of Chams, Han Chinese, Sundanese making up about 20% of total population.

History

Prehistory Era

Karasem was in the middle of Sundaland area on the prehistory prior to the 'disappearance' of this region under water leaving Karasem islands in the middle of South China Sea. According to the archaeologist, Karasem already populated since the 2,000 years ago by Austronesian Proto-Malay people from the mainland asia according to the most current believed theory.

Latest study suggest that Cikulon Island and Kasem Island settled or influenced by Austroasiatic speaking people in around 1-3rd century with the found of its influence on the early transcription of the Beranta Indera Kingdom and the uses of loanword from neigboring Khmer Language though the proofs are consindered weak.

Indianized Kingdom era

Sri-Indera Temple near Sukosari, South Cikulon Province
First known civilization in Karasem islands is Beranta Indera Kingdom dating back in 578 CE based on the Karagbatu Inscription found in its former capital, Vijaya (Ketapang) near modern day Ketapang. During its largest extend under the reign of King Virahman III (614-679), Beranta Indera territory includes Kasem Island, western Natuna Island and northern Cikulon Island.

In 705 Srivijaya managed to annex Beranta Indera. According toward Chinese inscription, the Port City of Sai-nga (modern day Kota Barat) was a major trading port on the region serving the merchants from various location and sells the local products of Nutmegs, Cloves and other spices related product originated from Maritime Southeast Asia Islands. Srivijaya empire extant in Karaseman Archipelago includes whole modern day Karasem Territory includes the neighboring port in Champa.

During the Srivijaya decline in 1005, Kingdom of Melayu Anyar emerged in Northern Cikulon with its capital of Malayanagara by the remains of former Beranta Indera Royal Lineage. King Kertabumi leads this newly formed Hindu Kingdom to pacify whole Cikulon Island and later Kasem and Natuna island. Prabu Muda (1144-1190) managed to conquer part of Serawak in Borneo and vassalize several minor states in Ketapang. Melayu Anyar later conquered by Singhasari in 1255.

In the North, under the sphere of Tang dynasty, Keshan Dynasty formed on 871 and became the vassal of Tang Dynasty (later in 930 become independent). Keshan is the first and only Sinosphere state in Karaseman Archipelago and exist for more than 1000 century until its annexed by Republic of Karasem in 1955.

After Singhasari, Majapahit taken over Karasem. in 1364 Majapahit navy captured Palembang, putting an end to the Srivijayan kingdom. Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighbouring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytisers began entering the area. After its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit power began to decline and was unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca. Dates for the end of the Majapahit Empire range from 1478 to 1520. A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royal family moved east to the island of Bali at the end of Majapahit power.

The Sultanate era

Purwasari Palace in Purwasari as the palace of Kubu anyar Sultanate

Sultanate of Malacca ruled western part of Karasem includes Cikulon, Kasem, Natuna and southern Ketapang since the dawn of Majapahit on early 15th century. Kota Bharat was an important port of region alongside with neighboring Temasek. Ketapang and Bandan were another growing settlement on Karasem Archipelago during this period. Sultanate of Malacca believed as the earliest form of Karasem and currently glorified as the golden age of the nation.

After Malacca conquered by Portuguese, in 1528 Johor founded in Malaya Peninsula while the rest of the former Malacca Sultanate territory fall under the rule of Sultan Mahmud Shah as the Sultanate of East Malacca and later renamed as Kubu Anyar Sultanate which literally means new front in English. Kubu Anyar Sultanate decide to reconcile the relation with neighboring states including the rival from Java in response to the growing tense with the continue colonization of European countries, most notably Dutch and Portuguese.

In Northeastern part of Karasem, Cham-Vietnamese war in 1471 forces the Cham to leave mainland and move into Langkap Island and forming the Sultanate of Langkap. Sultanate of Langkap territory consist of the Langkap island and the northern Melaka Archipelago area. Langkap remains independent until it annexed by Dutch East India Company in 18th century after a series of war.

Dutch Malaya era

Japanese Occupation and World War 2

Early Independence

Dictatorship Regime

Modern Time

Administration Divisions

Provinces of Karasem

Karasem is a Unitary State with total 4 administrative divisions level. The first level administrative divisions consist total 12 Provinces and one directly controlled capital city, Kota Baru. Provinces of Karasem consist of cities and regencies as the second level of administrative division which work coordinated by the provinces governor. There are 2 types of cities in Karasem, Kota (City) and Kota Besar (Core City) based on the size of the city. Smaller cities (population below 100k) mostly came into form of Kota, However cities with population above 100k need to apply the act to both national and regional legislative in order to approve the formation of the Core City. Third level of administrative divisions of Karasem is Kecamatan (District) which only available for the Regencies and Core City. City administrative division doesn't have district as its third level divisions as it considered to be an independent district in regency, city administrative divisions have directly fouth level, Kelurahan below the city government. Fourth level of administrative divisions consist of Kelurahan (Subdistrict).

Government and Politics

Widjojo Raharjo, current President of Karasem

Karasem is a presidential Constitutional Republic which government and state leader is president elected in a national election. Current presidential constitutional republic system has been adopted since the adoption of 1955 Constitution however between 1962-1967 Karasem leaded by junta military from PUK regime. Karasem legislature as the law maker consist of DPR (House of Representative) and DPD (Regional Representative) which members are also elected in national election.

Election in Karasem held every 5 years which consist of 2 separate but related election, legislature election to elect the members of DPR and DPD and the Presidential election. Political party or coalition of parties may able to nominates presidential candidate if their combined minimum seats of 25% on the national legislature. Presidential election done directly by people who eligible for voting. A president candidate may run up to 2 term in office.

Current President of Karasem is Widjojo Raharjo who nominated by Karasem Democratic Party in 2017 elections and will govern Karasem until the next election in 2022. Karasem parliament currently have majority from Democratic Party members with its coalition in government including the National Development Party and Progressive Party. Government opposition lead by the Conservative Party and Islamic Party which currently held 37% of the seat in government. Other non aligned Party including Socialist Party and Liberal Party which only have few seats in the parliament.

Foreign relations and military

Karasem is member of United Nations since 1970 and part of the founder of ASEAN. It also members of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO).

Karasem has various era of foreign relationship from the early independence era, later isolationist dictator of PUK in 1960s and Modern era after 1970s. According to the 1955 constitution, Karasem maintain its rather non-aligned foreign politics activity for advocating peace and humanity. This concept is derived from the previous 1945 constitution which basically against all type of imperialism power in world.

During its history since 1949, Karasem involved in several conflict with neighboring nations including the confrontation with Indonesia, Annexation of Southern part of French indochina in 1955 and the involvement in Cambodian–Vietnamese War.

Karasem considered to be Non-aligned state during cold war as it maintain the relationship with both Soviet and USA in 1967-1990 without biasing toward any part. Despite of its non-aligned nation, Karasem not considered to be Neutral country due to its involvement during several international conflict.

Military

Frigate KRK Mahmud Shah, Operated by TNK-AL from former USS Samuel B. Roberts in 2018

Karasem has 3 division on the forces: Ground force (TNK-AD), Airforce (TNK-AU), and Navy (TNK-AL). Karasem as about 650,000 active military personnel as in 2015 consisting of 3 forces with precedence in the Navy due to its area consist mostly by sea. Karasem abolished conscription since 1967 after the fall of PUK regime, currently recruitment is voluntary only.

Karasem Armed Force formed since the dawn of puppet state of Karasuma under Imperial Japan sphere of influence in order to maintain the stability of the region during world war 2. It turned into undertook a guerrilla war along with informal militia against Dutch between 1946-1949. With the full independence of Karasem in 1949, Karasem officially incorporated former members and structure of Karasuma Force into the Karasem Armed Force.

Under current law, Karasem military service is voluntary though there were proposals to make it to be compulsory as a conscription since 1990s. As for 2017 none of the proposal able to pass due to the controversy inside both Karasem armed force and the entire citizens. By 2017, there are about 40 millions people of Sundanesia aged 19-49 fit to the national military service and its opened for them to enter by any time.

Military spending in the national budget was widely estimated 3.9% of GDP in 2017, but is supplemented by revenue from many military-run businesses and foundations. The Karasem Armed FOrce personnel does not include members of law enforcement and paramilitary personnel such as POLRES (Karasem National Police) consisting of approximately 590,000 personnel, BRIMOB (police mobile brigade) of around 42,000 armed personnel, the Civil Service Police Unit, MENWA (collegiate military service) 26,000 trained personnel, and HANSIP (civil defense forces), number unknown.

Geography

Demographics

Ethnicity

Religions

Culture

Economy

Transportation

Public Services