Cattala

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United Kingdom of Cattala
Regno Unito di Cattala
National Flag of Cattala
Motto: Iunctus per Deus (United By God)
Anthem: Ashes to Beauty
Map of Cattala in Southern Europe
CapitalCeleste
Largest city Jennai
Official language(s) English, Italian
Recognised national languages English, Italian, Greek
Ethnic groups (2011) 89% Cattalian
6% British
3% Italian
2% Other
Demonym Cattalian
Government Constitutional Monarchy
 -  Monarch of the Realm Alexandra V
 -  Lord Celestine Lord Anthony Secolo
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senato Del Regno
 -  Lower house National Assembly
Major Historic Events
 -  Independence from the Kingdom of Italy 14 February 1918 
 -  Liberation by the British Empire 10 July 1943 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 11 May 1951 
Area
 -  Total 31,824 km2 
12,287 sq mi 
Population
 -  January 2014 estimate 4,423,000 
 -  January 2011 census 4,244,721 
GDP (PPP) Q4 2013 estimate
 -  Total $127.07 billion 
 -  Per capita $28,729 
Gini (2008–2009) 33.7 
HDI (2012) 0.863 (Very High) 
Currency Lira (CTL)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the Left
Simlympic code CAT
Internet TLD .ukc
The national motto is also the motto of the House of Bonnecelli.


Cattala, officially the United Kingdom of Cattala, is a Mediterranean constitutional monarchy comprised of seven provinces across four islands, around 50km east of Sicily and 50km south of Italy proper. Its neighbours are Tunisia and Libya to the south, Italy to the north and west and Greece to the east.

Cattala is a unitary state currently reigned over by Queen Alexandra V. Its seat of government is in the capital city, Celeste, which is also the historic home of the monarchy. The country is made up of seven provinces: Amosseri, Fieranti, Hellas, Jennai, Lessito, Monte Calida and Roumeli, the most populous of which is Jennai.

The kingdom is a developed nation, and has a long and illustrious history due to it's strategic location in the Mediterranean. Because of this, it has been ruled by the Phoenicians as well as the Greek, British and Roman Empires. Cattala's economy is highly industrialised and the city of Jennai is an important centre for regional financial and industrial markets. Cattala is a member state of the Alliance of Independent Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations, a founding member of the Liberal Monarchist Bloc, a member of the Alliance Security Council and a signatory to the Providence Accord and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Etymology and Terminology

The name "Cattala" comes from the time when the Romans first landed on the island, and believed that they were in Catalonia, Spain. The name Cattala has been in use since 200BC. Between the 11th century and 1814 Cattala was known as the "Kingdom of Cattala", and was occasionally separated into Gran Cattala and Cattala Minori, defining the difference between the mainland kingdom and the island of Roumeli. Following its colonisation by the British Empire, it became a Crown Colony before becoming a region of Italy between 1860 and 1918. After the Second World War, the name "United Kingdom of Cattala" was selected on independence from Italy. The mention of the unitary state was believed to have been in honour of Britain liberating Cattala from fascist forces in 1943 and the union between Cattala and Roumeli.

History

Main Article: History of Cattala
History of Cattala
House Celestine symbol.png
This article is part of a series
Key Events
Unification of Cattala
Damego War
War of the Vine
Roumelese Wars
Hellenic War
Golden Revolution
Cattalian Inquisition
Cattalian War of Independence
Historic States in Cattala
Kingdom of Cattala
Colony of Cattala
Cattala, Kingdom of Italy
Principality of Celestine
Kingdom of Cattala (Interwar)
Occupied Cattala
British Protectorate of Cattala

Cattala Portal

The history of Cattala is extensive, with the country seeing war, invasion and conquest as far back as 950BC. Ruled by foreign powers including the Phoenicians, Greek Empire, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire until the first Celestinian monarch, King Roger Celestine, established an independent kingdom in 995AD, which his dynasty controlled continuously until 1814 and a century of imperial rule.

A prominent trading point in the Mediterranean, Cattala has long been a crucial island in the geopolitical struggles of the region. Under the House of Celestine, ruling from their eponymous capital, the kingdom became a successful agrarian society with a strong defensive navy and domestic army, which was frequently used to crush internal opposition until the 16th century, when the failed Golden Revolution]] saw significant reforms introduced by the monarchy to weaken local lords and abolish the federal-feudalism hierarchy.

A seismic shift in religious following occurred in the late 16th and early 17th century, due to the Cattalian Inquisition. A failed attempt by the Holy See to prosecute individuals accused of crimes related to religious doctrine and alternate religious beliefs, it ended in the excommunication of the monarchy and the Bishop of Celestine, with the local Church and the Crown leading a schism from the Catholic Church. All Cattalian cardinals and officials were withdrawn from Rome and an independent Church of Cattala was founded.

The ruling classes were ousted from power after the 1814 Treaty of Paris gave the British control of Malta, and the Royal Navy threatened the southern coast. Despite the upheaval of a colonial takeover, Cattala flourished and its population and wealth rose significantly thanks to trade with the Empire.

Industrialisation began for the first time under British guidance but was abruptly halted when Italian unifiers invaded the island in 1860. It took the upheaval and suffering of the First World War to spark a revolution and violent independence from Italy in 1918. Financial, military and political support for the rebellion from the claimant to the crown ensured the restoration.

The Second World War made Cattala a key target of both the Allies and the Axis powers. Italian fascists bombed Celestine in 1940, damaging 4000 homes and Parliament, threatened to bomb Jennai and forced the King to abdicate after 22 years in power. The royal family was executed in Rome just days later. Occupation lasted three years, despite widespread disruption from guerilla armies, until a land invasion by British and American forces recaptured the island and established a temporary government that would rule for eight years.

After the end of the war Cattala underwent a rapid modernisation and rebuilding process, as well as social upheaval. A cadet branch of the extinct Celestine's was found and the new King elected by referendum in 1949. Industrialisation and the growth of cities since the war has changed the economic landscape of Cattala and made it a wealthy, independent kingdom, thanks in part to the stability of the post-war era under King Marco Bonnecelli and the support his governments were given from Britain and America.

Geography

Cattala's highest point, Monti Pelegrani

Cattala has a combined area of 31,824km2, which includes all of the mainland island of Cattala, the island of Roumeli and the Hellenic isles. It is situated in the Ionian Sea, south of the Italian province of Calabria and east of Sicily. The country is located between latitudes 36 and 38°N and longitudes 16° and 18°E. It shares no land borders with any other countries.

The country's geography is split by the natural division along the Monte Calida mountain range, which peaks at Monti Pelegrani (1,979 metres), the highest point in Cattala. This mountain range was formed by ancient volcanoes, which are now extinct. Cattala has no active volcanoes. To the east of these mountains, rolling plains and fertile valleys dominate the landscape of Lessito province. To the west, the historic forests of Amosseri and Fieranti sprawl towards the coastline, whilst in the south it is lowlands and marshes that dominate in Jennai province.

The country has a population of approximately 4.2 million people, making it the second most populous island in the Mediterranean Sea, despite it being the largest in terms of area. It has a population density of 127 people per squared kilometre and therefore is the 89th most dense nation on earth.

Flora and Fauna

Cattala, in contrast to neighbouring Sicily, has substantial forested areas still in existence, of which the largest is the Bosco di Celeste that was founded in 1721 as a hunting ground. It covers almost all of inland Amosseri, and extends north-east of the city of Celeste, dividing it from the city of Jennai. Other notable forests extend mostly from eastern Fieranti province and through much of the sparsely populated Monte Calida region.

The islands also have a significant amount of biodiversity amongst fauna. The rare Italian Wolf is found in sheltered locations in Amosseri and in the mountainous peaks of Monte Calida. Red Deer, Roe Deer, and the reintroduced Wild Boar also exist in large numbers in the forested regions of the country.

Rivers

The mouth of the Fiume Ontano in Lessito Province

The island previously had main rivers that spread across the south and west of the island, such as the Lamini River that once flowed through Jennai. However severe droughts during the 17th century dried up most of the rivers, and during Victorian rule, those that remained were linked into canal systems that cover Celeste, Jennai and Calora. The Fiume Callore was turned into a canal during a drought in the 1820s, to increase irrigation and protect water supplies.

However outside of the urban centres, most of Cattala's rivers remain on their natural course. Throughout eastern and central Cattala, in Monte Calida, Ontano and Ionia, rivers such as the Fiume Ontano and Fiume Romeggi remain flowing naturally with little human influence besides bridges and weirs. North of Calora, there has been a reduction in the amount of heavy engineering on the rivers in the past 20 years, in an effort to improve flood protection and create wetlands.

River fishing in these rural communities is an important industry, and the construction of dams and water treatment facilities along these rivers has proved highly controversial and challenging in the past. Recent proposals to introduce hydroelectric dams along the Fiume Romeggi were rejected by planning authorities and the Ministry of Energy and Climate following strong local opposition from farmers, fishermen and local residents.

Climate

Cattala has a typically Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers. Winters in Cattala are often wetter than in Sicily, especially in the south east of the country. During the summer, southern Cattala often suffers from a shortage of rain and most precipitation is in the form of thunderstorms from cumuliform clouds. Siesta's are a common pastime to counter the afternoon heat, especially during summer months. Coastal regions, such as Hellas and Calora, rarely suffer from heatwaves due to their proximity to the Ionian Sea. However in winter, they do suffer more from heavy rainfall and flooding is common in mountainous communities.

Month January February March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec
Average High (*C) 17 16 18 20 24 35 36 39 33 25 21 14
Average Low (*C) 9 10 11 14 17 20 24 26 20 18 14 11
Precipitation (mm) 82 67 64 50 30 12 5 8 30 78 85 94


View of Ontano Island, looking out over the numerous hamlets and farms.

Politics

Queen Alexandra V, the current monarch of Cattala

Main article: Politics and Government in Cattala

Cattala is a unitary constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, with the Monarch of Cattala as the head of state and Lord Celestine as the head of Government. The powers of legislative, executive and judiciary are separated into branches of government as defined by the Costituzione dello Stato Libero in 1951.

The Monarch officially retains executive power, but following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the King or Queen have become strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the appointment and dismissal of Lord Celestine and the dissolution of the Senato del Regno and the National Assembly. The Monarch remains commander-in-chief of the Armato Salvatori, is a senior authority in the Church of Cattala, and serves as a symbol of the country's unity. Since her ascension in 1994 Queen Alexandra V of the House of Bonnecelli has been Queen due to her being the great-granddaughter of King Marco Bonnecelli and a maternal descendent of the first King of Cattala, King Roger Celestine. She has three children, including her heir-apparent Crown Prince Edward.

In practice, it is the Lord Celestine who is responsible for the exercising of most executive powers. Legislative power is vested in the government, led by the Lord Celestine, and the Parliament of Cattala, a bicameral body made up of the 100-seat National Assembly and the 50-seat Senato del Regno. A proposition can pass as a bill or act by a simple majority amongst the lower house, and then is re-voted on in the Senato Del Regno to check whether a bill is suitable to be passed onto the monarch for Royal Assent.

The Solium is the formal residence of the head of government

The position of Lord Celestine, head of the government, belongs to the member of parliament who can obtain the confidence of a majority in the National Assembly, usually the current leader of the largest political party in that chamber. The Lord Celestine and his Regal Cabinet are formally appointed by the monarch to form Her Grace's Government, though the Cabinet is actually selected by the Lord Celestine. Most of the cabinet is formed of members of the lower house, although in the past elected members of the Senato del Regno have been given positions in government due to their experience or knowledge of that specific ministry.

Through the Council of State, a privy council presided over by the monarch, the Lord Celestine and the Regal Cabinet meet at the Victoria Palace and formally consult the Monarch. Besides enacting parliamentary bills, all government bills need the formal approval of the Monarch before and after introduction to Parliament. Approval is also given by the Council to all of the Monarch's actions as head of state. Although all government and parliamentary acts are decided beforehand, the privy council is an example of another symbolic gesture the Queen obtains.

The country has one national Parliament in Celeste, and the seven provinces each have their own local Parliament and regional government. The current head of the national Government, the Lord Celestine, is Lord George Lamini. He is also leader of the Conservative Alliance of Cattala and has led the government since winning the April 2014 General Election.

Administrative Divisions

Main Article: Provinces of Cattala

Cattala is split into seven provinces at a national level.

Cattala's administration is split over a number of levels, starting at a national level and ending at parish level. The national government controls all funding and receives all tax revenues and pays for nationwide public services, such as education and healthcare, as well as dedicating funding to each province. Provincial governments employ thousands of Cattalians, and provide regional services including police, fire service, lifeguard stations, consumer protection and transport.

Beneath these are counties, that manage upkeep and embellishment of the locality, road maintenance, allocation of local wardens and refuse collection, local planning, housing, libraries and licensing. They are a remnant of British rule.

Finally there are the comuni, also known as parishes, which manage local community areas such as allotments, recreational grounds, cemeteries and crematoria, public building maintenance, footpath construction and maintenance, parking areas and also have the power to advise county councils on local planning applications.

Local communities also run neighbourhood schemes and residents associations, that can often become powerful and influential within a comuni and some of the larger projects actually run parks and community centres that aren't owned by the parish councils.

Foreign Relations

Lord George Lamini, the current Lord Celestine of Cattala

Cattala is a founding member of the Alliance Security Council (ASC), the Liberal Monarchist Bloc (LMB), a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Trade Organisation, the International Monetary Fund, the AINEROzone, the European Free Trade Association, NATO and is a signatory of the Providence Accord.

Cattala is however, not a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe or a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights. The country has held three referendums on Council of Europe membership, in 1955, 1963 and 1971, all of which were strongly opposed. A referendum on EU membership was held in 1963 and was also rejected. The Cattalian public has always been eurosceptic and this continues today. A recent poll said only 18% of Cattala would support membership of the EU and 27% would support a Cattalian application to join the Council of Europe or European Court.

Support for the AIN has been high due to the increase in trading opportunities and improved intercontinental partnerships. Cattala has become a leading member of the AIN since it joined in summer 2010, holding the Presidency between September 2010 and September 2011 and it is a founding member of several international movements and organisations within the union.

The country has been a supporter of the War on Terror and as a NATO member has contributed in the past to the UN and NATO missions in Kosovo, Libya and Bosnia. It did not participate actively in the Afghan or Gulf Wars, but NATO fighter jets and naval vessels have been based in Cattalian ports for refuelling, leave and maintenance. It voted to support sanctions against Syria, North Korea and Iran in the past.

Cattala has been a vocal participant in international development missions and contributed 0.8% of GDP into international aid and relief programmes between 2007 and 2014, higher than the United Nation's target of 0.7%. A change of government and spending cuts mean that in the future, Cattala will only contribute the UN target level.

Military

A Marino Salvatori Regio-class destroyer in the Indian Ocean.

The Cattalian Armed Forces currently numbers about 33,000 personnel, excluding civilian employees. According to the current (as of 2010) mobilization plans, the strength during full mobilization is approximately 85,000 combatant personnel. Cattala has no compulsory conscription, but voluntary service for both males and females is offered at the age of 18. The Armato Salvatori are subordinate to the Ministry of Defence and the Commander-in-Chief is the monarch, Queen Alexandra V. The military is divided into four branches: Terra Salvatori, Cielo Salvatori, Marino Salvatori and Pattria Protettori. These names were given to the resistance forces during World War Two and continued to be used after the war and up to today.

Cattala maintains an advanced air force and navy trained specifically for the defence of Cattalian territory and territorial waters. The Armato Salvatori is charged with the defence of the country and the realm's overseas interests. It rarely performs international missions except as a minor member of a coalition or when the mission will prevent an atrocity against the Kingdom or its citizens. The last time Cattalian troops were sent overseas was during the Greek Civil War in 1949.

The Cielo Salvatori is the specialist force of Cattala's military, and receives the highest funding and has the most servicemen of any of the armed forces. It's main roles include supporting the coastguard during search and rescue missions and patrolling for illegal immigration across the sea, as well as taking part in military air strikes overseas. Cattala's contribution to the Kosovo War was air cover and since then the Cielo Salvatore has been the only part of the military deployed to overseas conflicts, including the Bosnian War. The Cielo’s biggest assets are its fleets of Eurofighter Typhoons, Tornado GR4’s and Chinook helicopters. In the future, the Cielo Salvatori is set to develop its own aircraft with the Galbadian Air Force and the Atlantic Federation, alongside purchasing F-35 fighters from the USA.

The army is, unlike the air force and navy, focused solely on defence and as a national guard, rather than as an aggressive or expeditionary force. The Terra Salvatori is made up of seven battalions which form the United Brigade of Cattala, the main land army of Cattala. A flexible group of Battalion Strike Forces, made up of smaller groups of soldiers from all three professional forces, is often used in overseas skirmishes and is used to add versatility to the army. It is boosted regularly by the 35,000 members of the Patria Protettori that form the semi-professional army at home.

The Ministry of Defence announced plans to build three Regio-class destroyers in 2005, which will form the centrepiece of the modernised Marino Salvatori by 2015. The navy has three central bases in Roumeli, Jennai and Ionia and expenditure on the force has risen considerably faster than all other areas of the military since 1990. The current fleet includes two Phoenician-class submarines, one Regio-class destroyer, six Tempest-class frigates and six corvettes amongst other vessels. Currently, two destroyers and two frigates are under construction in Jennai as part of the most expensive contract signed in Cattalian military history. All four will be floated for the first time in 2014.

Economy

Main Article: Economy of Cattala

Western Cattala is highly urbanised.
Cattala has a private sector focused economy, however there remains a vast amount of wealth and investment in the public sector, and much of the country's infrastructure remains nationalised. 64% of the country's GDP is produced by the services sector, mainly in the southern provinces of Amosseri and Jennai. Manufacturing and pharmaceuticals make up a further 30% of GDP, and also employs 60% of the population. In 2013, Cattala's GDP was $127,070 million.

Cattala's economy is defined be an east/west economic divide - in the west, heavy industry, services and international tourism are the main sectors, and over 80% of the country's GDP is produced west of the Bosco di Seina, in Monte Calida. In the east of Cattala, agriculture, light industry and tourism are the main sectors, and much of the country's food production takes place here. Lessito Province contains some of the region's most fertile soils and the Kingdom has reached near self-sufficiency in recent years thanks to the growth of agriculture in this region, despite it only producing 5% of national GDP. Industrialisation, colonisation and closer proximity to Italy and Africa are the three main reasons for the distortion in economic activity.

Jennai is Cattala's fiscal and economic capital, with over 40% of the population living in the province and the largest financial district and container port both being located in the city. Following the Second World War, Jennai was the central city to the redevelopment of Cattala and the entire country's economic stability is dependent on Jennai. The country's unemployment rate reached a historic low of 4.2% in 2005, but since then it has risen to the current level of 7.5%, which is lower than Italy's, but slightly higher than Malta and Cyprus. Cattala lowered it's income taxation rates in October 2010, and now those earning $15,000 or less annually pay no tax. The highest rate of taxation, 40%, is charged on annual incomes of over $130,000. The average Cattalian earns just under $60,000 per year and therefore would be in the 20% tax bracket. The consumption tax rate, also known as VAT, currently stands at 15%.

Cattala has a credit rating of AA, with a stable outlook. It has been AA for seventeen years and was rated "negative" during the recession of 2008-09, but was returned to "stable" in 2010.

Important Companies: Bura Group, industrial conglomerate with Motobura engine manufacturer and Buraion military producers; Velogara, sports car manufacturer; Vestibilé, mobile phone corporation; AriaRegale, defence and aerospace corporation; Cooperativa, consumer-owned equivalent to supermarket; Ecosaai, renewables supplier and producer; Imperial and African Cruises (IAC International), travel operator; Verrosa, department store; Burleoni, fashion house; Tormon-Bonne, hotel chain

Energy

In the past, hydroelectic, nuclear and natural gas produced most of Cattala's energy needs. Cattala has had a nationalised energy market since 1951, although in 1986 parts of the energy industry were privatised, resulting in the demerger of the National Energy Company and the creation of Energie Verdi, NEG and the National Grid. Until recently, over 40% came from natural gas imports, with another 40% coming from coal and oil imports.

Solar Energy

Concentrated solar power is the fastest-growing renewable sector in Cattala

Solar energy has resulted in 12% of the country's energy needs coming from domestic solar production, and the Seina Fieldways Solar Station, in Monte Calida province. The domestic solar energy sector has been the fastest growing energy sector over the past 10 years and the government has subsidised the solar market for another 6 years. Commercial solar energy remains on a smaller scale, but Energie Verdi has begun a major construction project to build seven CSP stations by 2020, which will produce large-scale solar energy using the parabolic trough method.

Wind Energy

A multi-billion lira investment in wind energy means that by February 2018, over 34% of the country's electricity, around 3.6 GW, will be produced by a four-part wind network, spread across Hellas Province, Southern Jennai and off the coastline of Lessito Province. In November 2010, a 600MW triple-wind network was completed in northern Hellas Province, the first of its kind in Cattala.

Nuclear and Fossil Fuels

Cattala's only nuclear power station was closed down in 2010.

Besides solar, wave and wind resources, Cattala has small amounts of offshore oil reserves in the Ionian Sea, north west of Calora. The Government owns the marine area where the oil reserves are located but no efforts have been made to extract the oil since it was discovered in the 1960s. Investment in Nuclear energy is also rapidly increasing, with coordinated development with the Atlantic Federation meaning that by 2028, two modern nuclear power stations may be operational in Cattala. The decommissioning of Celeste Nuclear Station in the Autumn of 2010 meant that nuclear power currently provides 0% of Cattala's energy demands.

Electric Transport

Electric cars are expected to become a major part of the car market over the next 5 years, and up to 1000 electric charge points are being planned for Jennai city alone. Nearly all of Cattala's railways are electrified and all of the rural tracks are powered by renewable energy sources.

Discussions between the local governments of Lessito and Monte Calida provinces are ongoing on setting up a revolutionary ElectRoad network between Cape Almae and Seina, which would carry electric vehicles on a vehicle train at around 80mph whilst charging them, so that the cars wouldn't need to stop for a charge. This would mean long distance travelling in an electric vehicle would be possible today, rather than 15 years time. Plans stated that it would connect to the Cape-Seina motorway and railway network, but talks stalled in Spring 2011, and are unlikely to resume until 2012 at the earliest.

Transport

Road

Main Article: Motorways in Cattala

Most Cattalians travel by cars in their everyday lives. Cattala has seven motorways, including the Celeste-Jennai M1, the Celeste to Calora M2 and the Calora-Jennai M3 which form the "Golden Triangle" of transport between the major cities. Around 65% of Cattala's cars are petrol, although the number of diesel and electic cars is rising. Taxation on fuel rose by 25% between 1985 and 2002, which now adds 50% to the price of petrol and diesel at fuelling stations. LPG is not taxed for cars, and plans are afoot to build over 1100 electric charge points in Jennai alone between 2011 and 2016. Analysts predict that by 2015, electric and hybrid vehicles will be around 15% of Cattala's car market, compared to a 10% prediction for other European countries. The initial approximation put forward in 2008 was scaled back due to the economic downturn, which has had a significant impact on car sales.

Public Transport

Bus transport across the country is widespread, with multinational companies including Arriva, Catbus Group and TPC Group operating franchises owned by provincial governments. Cities including Calora, Celeste and Seina have small tram networks in city centre districts that are operated by Metrolink, a subsidiary of Cattala Rail, on license from metropolitan councils. Local transport services are devolved to provincial parliaments.

Rail

Main Article: Railways in Cattala

A high-speed Railair service heading to Jennai Intl

Cattala has an extensive railway network, serving most of the country and all of the major towns and cities. The system consists of 2,957 km of railway lines, of which 65% is electrified. Most traffic is passenger trains, although there is considerable freight goods traffic between Jennai and the ports of Calora and Celeste. The railway infrastructure and service operator is known as Cattala Rail, which has operated the railways under a Royal Charter since 1951. The freight network was opened up to competition in 1990 and Cattala Rail privatised its freight division in 2002.

Cattala has three types of railway lines, as distinguished in the 1990 restructuring. The main urban to urban route that makes up the InterCity network connects Jennai, Calora and Celeste in a triangular basin home to more than 50% of the island's population. Trains on this line can travel at a maximum of 200 km/h, compared to speed limits of 160km/h on most other lines. The seven other national railway lines are the Albert Line, Roumeli Railway, the Northern Railway, Transmonte Eastern, Lessito Link, South Coast Main Line and the Ontano line, from west to east. Each line is operated individually by local management, directly accountable to the central command and management centre in Jennai.

By 2018, all of the railways will be electrified, including all minor branch lines. The Ministry of Transport announced a general £90 million of extra investment for maintenance upgrades and efficiency programmes up to 2016. All rural lines will be safeguarded and the government committed to a greater frequency and higher quality of services. Plans are also under way to expand the InterCity lines between Calora, Celeste and Jennai, with a possible High Speed Rail link using the Javelin sprint train to link the three central cities with at least 8 trains per hour. The construction of a high speed line would mean that all of the major urban areas were connected by either high speed or fast tilting trains. Decisions on the future of intercity high speed railway will be made by 2015 and the possibility of an international line to Sicily will be decided on in 2016.

Aviation

Main Article: Airports of Cattala

Regno Aerei is Cattala's long-haul airline

Cattala has extensive domestic and international aviation links, mainly through its four major airports. The largest airport is Jennai International, which is the hub airport for southern Italy and Cattala and serves 15 million passengers annually, making it Europe's 28th busiest airport. It has two terminals and one runway, and passenger numbers continue to rise. Jennai serves all of the long haul flights of Regno Aerei and is the centre of Cattala's transatlantic and Far Eastern flights.

Calora and Roumeli International Airports serve as the country's second and third airports and the hubs for Cattala Airways, the country's second airline. Calora International has 3 million passengers annually, with most flights being from Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Roumeli International served 2 million passengers in 2011, with most on holidays. It's largest passenger numbers came from the United Kingdom, and is busiest in the summer months. King Marco International in Celeste is the country's main diplomatic airport and serves the capital region.

Cattala Aviation Group is a partially state-owned airline holding company headquartered in Jennai that was formed in September 2011 following the nationalisation of Regno Aerei and the subsequent restructuring of the aviation sector in Cattala, orchestrated by the Ministry of Transport. It has a 100% stake in both of Cattala's major airlines, Cattala Airways and Regno Aerei and was partially floated on the Jennai Stock Exchange in 2012.

Demographics

Historically, Cattalian households were made up of extended families, traditionally three generations - grandparents, parents and children. Entire families regularly lived in one hamlet in rural communities. In recent decades though, the number of single-person households has risen by 30% and the number of households is now equivalent to one house per 2.7 people, compared to one house per 4 people in 1996. There are 1.6 million households in Cattala, compared to a population of 4.3 million in the 2011 census.

Life Expectancy for Females Life Expectancy for Females Birth Rate* Death Rate* Infant Mortality Rate* Total Fertility Rate* Population Growth Rate
Figure (* =Per 1000 cases) 77.8 83.2 11.9 8 4 1.95 1.25%

Major settlements

Religion

The Cathedral of Calora, Cattala's biggest cathedral

The Church of Cattala, also known as the Cattalian Catholic Church, is the officially established Christian Church in Cattala and is in partial communion with the Catholic Church. The church originally was part of the Catholic Church, but after the Cattalian Inquisition that deposed the Bishop of Celestine, the King of Cattala broke away from the church in 1617. The Church has remained similar to the Roman faith through celebration of Mass, belief in the Trinity, follows the Catholic Bible and also has Seven Sacraments. However it has it's own Magisterium and Divina Anima Della Chiesa, or head of the faith. The Church of Cattala is limited in size mostly to Cattala, Roumeli, some Hiijaro-Hellenic islands and Hellas, and currently has 3.7 million members in Cattala and overseas. One of their main policies that has been highlighted by the Church and later approved by the government is that dancing naked in the street is prohibited.

Cattala is home to other Christian denominations, including Anglicans, Catholics and a small community of Methodists. Jewish migrants have long resided in Cattala and form a minority population dispersed around the country, whilst recent Muslim immigration has increased the percentage of the population that follow the teachings of Islam to more than 1% of the national total, although they are confined to the cities. Rural communities consist almost unanimously of Church of Cattala patrons.

Education

Imperial University is Cattala's largest and oldest university

Education in Cattala is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local education boards take responsibility for implementing policy for public education at a regional level, as provincial governments do not have any authority over education matters.

The system is divided into Asilo (ages 2–7), Elementare (ages 7–11), Secondaria (ages 11–16) and Accademia (ages 16-18). Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between four and eighteen, with a child beginning the second level of Asilo during the school year he or she turns 5. Before this age, attending Asilo Infante is optional but in 2010 96% of children had attended at least one year of pre-compulsory nursery education.

Elementare is the first stage of entirely learning-based education. For the four years after they arrive in the year of their seventh birthday, students are taught basic skills in many subjects, with a focus on English, Italian, Maths and the Sciences. There are no formal examinations.

Secondaria begins in the year of a child's twelfth birthday, and ends in the year of their sixteenth birthday, when they have completed their ESLs (Secondary Level Examinations), exams based on the English O-Level that was introduced in the 1950s and was used as the basis for Cattala's post-war education system. In the final two years of Secondaria, students study English, Mathematics, Core Science, Italian or Greek and Information Technology, as well as any other additional subjects they choose or the school offers. Sports are compulsory until the age of 16, but are not examined on.

Accademia is the final stage of compulsory education in Cattala. In Accademia, students study subjects of their choice which are provided by that Academy and they are much more specialised than at Secondaria level and sit modular ELA's (Advanced Level Examiniations) split into two parts over a two year period, with qualifications in three, four or five subjects. Accademia is entirely exam based, but a vocational alternative called the QP, in which students learn on the job, is available.

State-provided schooling and sixth form education is paid for by taxes. Until 1906, all schools were run by the Cattalian Church, who ran the Ministry of Academia. Now, there are many faith schools that receive up to 50% of their funding from religious organisations such as the Church. Cattala has a tradition of independent schooling, especially in Amosseri, but parents may choose to educate their children by any suitable means.

Higher education often begins with a three-year bachelor's degree. Postgraduate degrees include master's degrees, either taught or by research, and the doctorate, a research degree that usually takes at least three years. Universities require a Royal Charter in order to issue degrees, and all are financed by the state via tuition fees, which increased in 2010 for international students and saw the EU's subsidy abolished. Cattala's four major universities are Imperial, Jennai City, Calora and Ontano.

Healthcare

Royal Celestic Infirmary is a major hospital in Celeste

The National Health Authority (NHA) is the government-run and publicly funded healthcare provider in Cattala responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country. There are four regional health authorities that operate as part of the NHA. It is funded from general taxation and provides most of its services free at the point of use, although there are charges for some people for eye tests, dental care and some aspects of personal care. Limits on treatment include a prohibition on cosmetic surgery and, more controversially, contraceptives, which are not subsidised and in many cases not provided at all by the NHA. In addition to the public hospitals, there are privately owned health clinics operating in Jennai and Amosseri provinces. These are strictly regulated and are amongst the only clinics in the country that facilitate cosmetic surgery.

Abortion in Cattala is a controversial issue. Whilst they are not subsidised by the regional health authorities, they are available to those with "a severe medical or psychological need" before the 18th week of pregnancy, at a cost and with a certificate from two doctors. This has been the case nationwide since 1994, although in Lessito and Monte Calida provinces the regional governments have actively prevented the opening of abortion clinics.

The government department responsible for the running and funding of the NHA is the Ministry for Health, with much of its expenditure going towards paying for the regional health agencies. The four Regional Health Authorities are: Royal & Western Healthcare, Southern Health Authority, Roumeli Health Authority and Eastern Healthcare Authority. Each Health Authority operates public hospitals, general practices, dental clinics and ambulance services.

Police

Mounted Police serve in all three metropolitan forces.

Cattala has had a professional police force for more than 150 years, after the then-Crown Prince visited Paris and London in 1842 and conducted research into the creation of a formal and structured police service. Today, the country has three metropolitan police services and seven provincial constabularies that operate in specific jurisdictions. There are also three special police forces: The Transport Police, Military Police and the Border Police Agency. They all get their funding from the Ministry for National Affairs and are overseen by Chief Constables.

Since Cattala came under British rule in the 19th century and again after World War Two, the police force has become similar to that of the UK. As such, the majority of Cattala's police are never routinely armed, relying on an extendable baton instead. However, the Transport Police and Military Police can carry weapons and each police force has trained specialist armed units.

There are three main types of police officer in Cattala: Constables, who have standard police powers and are local police officers, Sergeants, who supervise constables, Inspectors, Chief Inspectors, Superintendent, who command divisions of constabularies and Chief Constable, who is in charge of the police force. There are detectives at various ranks, who specialise in criminal investigation or special operations and assistant chief constables and chief superintendents in larger forces.

Languages

In Roumeli, road signs are in English and Greek.

The country has two official languages: Italian and English. Due to the country's mixed past, Cattala now has a dominant use of the English language alongside the local dialect of Italian, which is declining in use as English has become the common language of the nation and the language of business, government and even the medium of instruction in most schools. Italian is now the main language of just 21% of the population, compared to 71% in 1930, but is a secondary language for 73% of the population.

English has flourished in the islands, most significantly during the British colonial period in the 19th century, and again after the Second World War. A prolonged Anglo-American presence in the islands between 1943 and 1951 meant that English became prolific across the country during that period and has continued to grow as a language because of global trade and investment with the Anglosphere. In the 2011 census, 74% of the population defined English as their main language, and 6% of the population identified themselves as English.

Greek is recognised as a third language nationally, and is an important language in Hellas province, with its large Greek community of around 250,000. French is also a common third language for many Cattalians. In schools, children are taught in English and Italian and all signposts in the country are in English and Italian, except in Hellas and Roumeli provinces, where the signposts are in English and Greek.

Culture

Sport

Main article: Sport in Cattala

Jennai Stadium: 50,000 capacity Stadio di Lady Eliza, Celeste: 42,000 capacity

Cuisine

Cattalian cuisine can be traced back to the 3rd century BC, although in the past two centuries it has changed considerably with the introduction of British culture and exotic foods like tea and corn. Traditional Cattalian meals include local produce, mostly citrus fruits, tomatoes and other fresh vegetables, dairy products such as cheese and creams and local meats like ham, beef and pork. In coastal regions, like Fieranti, Roumeli and Hellas, fish-based meals are the most common.

Generally people eat light breakfasts, consisting of tea or coffee with bread rolls, butter and jams between 6 and 10 in the morning. On weekends, a Cattalian version of the traditional English breakfast is popular, with eggs, mushrooms, bacon and sausages eaten alongside toasted bread. Lunch is the main meal in Cattala, with meals often lasting several hours during the summer months and is made up of two substantial courses such as lasagne, pizza or meat dishes and a fruit-based dessert. Lunch occurs between 2 and 4 in the afternoon in Cattala, and can stretch until 5pm in Lessito. On special occasions and Sundays, lunch is a gathering of the entire family and can extend into the late evening. Dinner is typically another light meal, often using the leftovers of lunch, such as sandwiches, soups, pastas, cold meats or other remains of the lunchtime meal. Dinner occurs between 8 and 10 in the evening.

Media

Royal Media International (RMI) is the state broadcaster in Cattala, headquartered in the RMI Media Park in Franogei, a historic district of Celeste, Amosseri. It is the largest broadcaster in Cattala and was founded in 1959 to provide public service broadcasting across Cattala, Malta and other English-speaking Mediterranean states. It is an autonomous corporation that operates under a Royal Charter and is licensed by the Ministry for Culture, Media and Sport. It's main form of funding is the television license fee, paid for by all Cattalian television owners on an annual basis. The fee is decided by the Government and voted on by the National Assembly.