Confederate States of America
États confédérés d'Amérique
|Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin)
"Under God, our Vindicator"
Location of Carolina (dark green)
In the Alliance of Independent Nations (navy)
|Official languages||English, French|
|Recognised national languages||Atlantsiike|
|-||President||Nikki Haley (D)|
|-||Vice-President||Marco Rubio (D)|
|-||Speaker of the House||Marsha Blackburn (D)|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||Provisional Government||February 8, 1861|
|-||Permanent constitution||February 22, 1862|
|-||Treaty of Paris||August 1, 1863|
|-||Last polity admitted||April 11, 1963|
552,990 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|-||Total||$4.619 Trillion (2nd)|
|-||Per capita||$51,735 (3rd)|
very high · 10th
|Currency||Carolinian Dollar ($) (
|Time zone||(TUC-5 to -6)|
|-||Summer (DST)||(TUC-4 to -5)|
|Drives on the||right|
The Confederate States of America (CSA) (French: États confédérés d'Amérique), commonly referred to as Carolina or the Confederate States, is a federal republic composed of nine states, and a federal district. At 552,990 square miles (1,432,237 squre km2) and nearly 90 million people, Carolina is the 23rd largest country in the world and 21st most populous. The capital is Charleston, the largest city is Houston, while the largest metro area is the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex in Trinité. Carolina is located in North America south and east of the United States. The Warsiene Islands comprise of an archipelago in the northwestern Caribbean.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago, with European colonization beginning in the 16th century. France established a Hugenot Colony at Charlesfort (now Charleston) in 1562 which remains the oldest permanently settled site in Carolina. After the Huguenot Wars, England took possession of most of northern and eastern Carolina in the modern-day states of Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Spain established a permanent settlement at St. Augustine which anchored their Florida colony, and Friega established settlements in the Warsiene Islands. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, British Carolina retained its cultural ties to France and developed a distinct culture from the northern colonies. Numerous disputes between the colonies and Great Britain following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution and the Carolinian states became a part of the newly formed United States. Growing worry and resentment over northern encroachment on Carolinian lifestyles led all eleven states joining to form the Confederate States of America. the countries remained at a standstill until May of 1861 when it appeared to look like Virginia and Kentucky were going to secede to protect slavery. The possibility of other states seceding and diplomatic pressure from France and Britain resulted in the Treaty of Washington, recognizing Carolina's independence but preventing it from admitting other U.S. states. Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri rebelled to protect slavery and formed the Central Confederation resulting in the American Civil War. The Treaty of Paris established Carolina as an independent state, however, the country released claims over the non-Francophone states that had seceded. The first states to end slavery in Carolina did so in 1893 and the practice was abolished in 1898. Carolina affirmed its role as a world power in World War I and reaffirmed its role in World War II. During the 1960's and 1970's a popular movement brought an end to segregation and allowed African-Carolinians to vote. During the Cold War, Carolina stood firmly on the side of the United States, and developed a nuclear missile program to deter Cuba and other nearby threats.
Carolina is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, and other international organizations; and is pending as a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations. The nation also serves as a permanement member of the United Nations Security Council and is a member of the G8. Carolina is a highly developed country with the world's third largest by nominal GDP and ninth largest by GDP (PPP). Carolina ranks highly in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, and productivity per person. While the Carolina economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services, the country still retains a significant manufacturing sector. Carolina is one of the foremost military powers in the world, ranking third on military spending behind the United States and China.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Indigenous and European contact
- 2.2 Settlements
- 2.3 Early Colonial History
- 2.4 American Revolution and Antebellum Years
- 2.5 Seccession Crisis and Carolinian Independence
- 2.6 Early Republic
- 2.7 Transition to a Modern Nation
- 2.8 World War I, 1920's, Great Depression, and World War II
- 2.9 Cold War and Civil Rights Era
- 2.10 Contemporary History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government and Politics
- 6 Economy
In the late 1500's, French groups attempted to establish a Huguenot colony in present-day South Carolina near Charleston. The name of this colony became Fort Caroline. As the colony became more successful, the French generally adopted the name Caroline as for lands ranging from the Mississippi River along the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts to the British Virginia Colony. When the Aranese attacked and took over the colony from the French in the 1600's, they abandoned the name of their Huguenot colony named Aranese Florida and renamed the colony as Aranese Carolina. Carolina is the translation of Caroline into Catalan, the dominant language in Arriola at the time. When the British took over, they subdivided the large colony into many provinces, most of which eventually became states such as North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. However, the southern colonies were colloquially known as the Carolinian colonies and many of the French-speaking inhabitants referred to themselves as Carolinians. Once the colonies became a part of the United States, the term Carolina generally expanded to any state with a French or Occitan speaking majority and thus eventually was expanded to states such as Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arcansas, and Louisiana. By the 1840's, the term was also used to describe the two eastern states of the former Republic of Texas, East Texas and Trinity.
The official title of the country, the Confederate States of America relates to the initial form of government of the country when it was founded in 1861. At the time of the Bayonne la Vella Convention, there was some contemplation over naming the country the Confederate States of Carolina or United States of Carolina. However, delegates chose to pick the Confederate States of America in order to take into account the potential expansion of the country into areas like Cuba, the Carribean, and other U.S. states.
The term Carolina was later popularized by President Jacques Longurue who famously said: "We call ourselves Carolinians, so we should call this land Carolina". The term has been popularized throughout the twentieth century through popular culture and other politicians who have used the term. Generally, the term Carolina is used when informally talking about the country, while the Confederate States of America is used in formal writing such as government documents. While there hasn't been an official change of name by the Confederate States of America to become Carolina, there have been several proposals. The most recent proposal was in 1993 which sought a constitutional amendment to change the name of the country to the Confederate States of Carolina.
Indigenous and European contact
The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival. Some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies. After the Spanish conquistadors made the first contacts, the native population declined for various reasons, primarily from diseases such as smallpox and measles. Violence was not a significant factor in the overall decline among Native Americans, though conflict among themselves and with Europeans affected specific tribes and various colonial settlements.
In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares. Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.
The first attempts to colonize modern-day Carolina were by the Spanish in 1521. Ponce de León and 200 other men sailed from Cuba to set up a colony in southwestern Florida, most likely near Charlotte Harbor. However due to attacks by the nearby Calusa tribe, the men had to return in July, 1521.
In 1526 de Ayllón led an expedition of some 600 people to the South Carolina coast. After scouting possible locations as far south as Ponce de León Inlet in Florida, the settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape was established in the vicinity of Sapelo Sound, Georgje. Disease, hunger, cold and Indian attacks led to San Miguel being abandoned after only two months. About 150 survivors returned to Spanish settlements.
In 1562, Charles IX, under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny sent Jean Ribault and a group of Huguenot settlers in an attempt to colonize the Atlantic coast and found a colony on a territory which will take the name of the French Florida. They discovered the probe and Port Royal Island, which is now called by Parris Island in South Carolina, on which he built a fort named Charlesfort (present-day Charleston). The fort was later moved further to the north, on the site of present-day Charleston, South Carolina.
A second colony was established near the mouth of the St. James River. While beginning peacefully at first, the Spanish opposed the Huguenot based colony for religious reason. The recently appointed Spanish Governor of Florida Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés was dispatched from Saint Augustine with the intent on destroying the French colony. The Spanish led an army through a hurricane and launched a surprise assault on the fort on September 20. Only around 50 men and women who were taken prisoner survived the assault.
The colony at Charlesfort quickly grew as a result of Huguenot immigration from France. The main focus of the colony was along the present-day coast of South Carolina, however claimed a northern border at the James River in Virginia. In 1630 the colony was officially called the Caroline Colony. By 1650, the colony was controlled land ranging from the Savannah River in the south to the Cape Fear River in the north. Tobacco was the main staple of the economy in the colony and plantations in the colony grew most of France's tobacco trade.
Early Colonial History
During the Huguenot Rebellions in France, Caroline saw a large influx in immigration as people fled persecution in France. Leaders of the rebellions fled to the frontier of the colony, near Augusta and Colomb. In 1626, France tried to extend laws against Huguenots to Carolina, as well as restrict immigration to the colony. Leaders met in Villeneuve to discuss the colony joining as a part of the Third Huguenot Rebellion, hoping to gain support from England. The leaders declared independence as the Huguenot Republic, whose government was meant to be an interim government until support from England could arrive. The republic never had much authority and the Huguenot Assembly only met once, however became a part of the Huguenot identity.
The Virginia Company initially sent a militia south to take Caroline from the French. However, resistance against the Virginians caused the militia to turn back before reaching Wilmington. The English invaded and captured Charlesfort in 1628 and also took the Cape Fear and Savannah River basins. With most of the colony under the control of the English, the French surrendered it at the Treaty of Ales. The name of the colony was anglicized to Carolina, and subsequently became the Province of Carolina.
The Charter for Carolina in 1629 gave control of the land between the 31st and 36th parallels to Sir Robert Heath who avidly wanted to continue Huguenot immigration to the colony. Under Heath, Huguenot immigration soared, furthering developing the colony. Most settlers were small farmers, however some industries developed in coastal towns. Cash crops included tobacco, rice and wheat. English and Scot-Irish settlers also immigrated to Carolina which caused some division between those not willing to adapt to Huguenot traditions and other settlers.
A large scale slave trade began, mostly done by English privateers. Due to less diseases and better working conditions, slaves in Carolina and other English colonies traditionally lived longer than those to the south. This led to a large increase in the number of slaves in Carolina. Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery and colonies passed acts for and against the practice. However, by 1700 slaves were beginning to replace indentured servants.
In 1710, the Province of Carolina was split into the Province of North Carolina and the Province of South Carolina. This was mainly due to the northern section growing significantly different from the southern half. Northern Carolina had become much more English speaking with around 30% of the population being of English or Scot-Irish descent. Transportation and communication was also difficult between the two colonies, and a seperate governor had administered the northern part since 1691.
With the British colonization of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established. All had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism. With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Huguenot immigration continued, which allowed French speaking population to stay the dominant ethnic group within the three Carolinian colonies. Huguenots became known as Carolinians in the early 1700's. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed. The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest in both religion and religious liberty.
During the Seven Years' War (in the Carolina and the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French. Unlike in the Carolinian colonies, the francophone population remained politically isolated from the other British colonies. The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.
American Revolution and Antebellum Years
The American Revolutionary War was the first successful war of independence by a colony, against its colonial power. The Carolinian colonies generally were more reluctant to join the American Revolution. This stemmed off fears of indian raids and slave uprisings during and after the war. Georgia became the most reluctant colony to join the American Revolution because of constant Indian raids which affected the territory. North and South Carolina sent delegated to both the First and Second Continental Congress, while Georgia only sent delegates to the second. Delegates from all three signed the Lee Resolution which officially declared independence, along with the Declaration of Independence.
Great Britain was forced to recognize the independence of the United States following their defeat at the Battle of Yorktown. Following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, American sovereignty was established east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes.
The Revolution provided a shock to slavery in Carolina. Thousands of slaves took advantage of wartime disruption to find their own freedom, catalyzed by the British Governor Dunmore of Virginia's promise of freedom for service. Many others were removed by Loyalist owners and became slaves elsewhere in the Empire. Between 1770 and 1790, there was a sharp decline in the percentage of blacks – from 61% percent to 44% in South Carolina and from 45% to 36% in Georgia.
Cotton became dominant in the Dixie region after 1800. Following the invention of the cotton gin, short staple cotton could be grown more widely. This led to an explosion of cotton cultivation, especially in the frontier uplands of Georgia, Alabama, as well as riverfront areas of the Mississippi Delta. Migrants poured into those areas in the early decades of the 19th century, which spread the Carolinian culture out west. In addition migrants from the northern parts of the US as well as other Americans who spoke English mixed with Carolinians in the west. The explosion of cotton created a large demand for slave labor, and the institution became vital to many parts of the Southern/Carolinian United States.
With the opening up of frontier lands after the government forced most Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi, there was a major migration of both whites and blacks to those territories. From the 1820s through the 1850s, more than one million enslaved Africans were transported to Dixie in forced migration, two-thirds of them by slave traders and the others by masters who moved there. Planters in states such as North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia sold slaves excess to their needs as they shifted from tobacco to mixed agriculture. Many enslaved families were broken up, as planters preferred mostly strong males for field work.
The issue regarding slavery led to the creation of of two distinct geographical groups in the United States, the north and the south. However, a third ethnic group centered around the Carolinian became more vocal as it saw encroachment on it's lifestyle by the north. Carolinians largely had their own identity within the United States, and were culturally and linguistically separate from English speaking "Americans". While most upper class Carolinians knew English, much of the lower class did not which created the divide. At the same time, slave owners tried to use this divide to claim that the federal government could not regulate slavery, as it vowed to protect the culture of the Carolinians.
Before the Civil War, the number of immigrants arriving at Southern ports began to increase, although the North continued to receive the most immigrants. Huguenots continued to immigrate to Carolina, where they adapted to the culture and became a part of Carolinian society. Numerous Irish immigrants settled in New Orleans, establishing a distinct ethnic enclave now known as the Irish Channel. Germans also went to New Orleans and its environs, resulting in a large area north of the city (along the Mississippi) becoming known as the German Coast.
By 1840, New Orleans was the wealthiest city in the country and the third largest in population. The success of the city was based on the growth of international trade associated with products being shipped to and from the interior of the country down the Mississippi River. New Orleans also had the largest slave market in the country, as traders brought slaves by ship and overland to sell to planters across the South. New Orleans along with Charleston became the western center of commerce for the Carolinian states in the Deep South. The city was a cosmopolitan port with a variety of jobs that attracted more immigrants than other areas of the South. Because of lack of investment, however, construction of railroads to span the region lagged behind the North. Most Carolinians relied most heavily on river traffic for getting their crops to market and for transportation.
As Carolinian settlers continued to move west, they settled primarily south of the 36'30" parallel, moving into Tennessee, southeastern Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The states above the parallel such as Virginia and Kentucky, had some French speaking Carolinian's but the states were overwhelmingly English speaking. Therefore, most French speakers did not assimilate into the American culture and remained a distinct group within Carolina. As early as the 1820's settlers began to move into the Mexican province of Texas. The settlers were initially invited by the Mexican government in order to settle and protect the territory, however the settlers moved in en masse and soon outnumbered the native Tejanos in the region. In 1836, the settlers declared independence as the Republic of Texas due to Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's centralization of the country. Texas was able to force Santa Anna to recognize the independence of Texas at the Battle of San Jacinto and Texas became an independent republic. While Carolinian states lobbied extensively for the annexation of Texas into the United States, annexation did not come into 1846. The Mexican American War which was sparked over the annexation of Texas and the inheritance of its border dispute with Mexico, also produced a lot of land for Carolinian settlement, and pacified people who wished to create their own country. In 1850, Arcadius Jeansonne won the 1850 Texas gubernatorial election, dividing the state into three new states, Trinity, Texas and West Texas giving Carolinians a boost in Congress.
Seccession Crisis and Carolinian Independence
By 1856, the South had lost control of Congress, and with that much of the hope for a balance of power between Carolinian and Anglo states withered away. Slavery, which was a major part of the Carolinian economic system continued to be on the attack by northerners, and the rise of the Republican Party, made it apparent to Carolinian's as they pledged to stop the spread of slavery beyond those states where it already existed. The plantation class in Carolina responded negatively to repeated calls of slavery from northerners, many believing that the north was trying to undermine their social and economic system. Congress was also against the extension of slavery into western territories, which was protested by Carolinians, seeing it as a ploy to make sure the west stayed in the hands of English speaking Americans.
After Abraham Lincoln was elected the first Republican president in 1860, South Carolina declared secession from the United States under the pretense that the federal government had refused to protect Carolinians. While multiple compromise attempts were made to hopefully keep the Carolinian states in the union, most of them failed to address the underlying cause and simply vowed to protect slavery. Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, all with large majorities of Carolinians, seceded before February of 1861 when Lincoln was to be inaugurated. The states met in Bayonne la Vella to form a provisional government for the newly minted Confederate States of America. Following the creation of the provisional government, Arcansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Trinity also seceded and gradually were accepted into the Confederacy. The Provisional Congress elected Ferdinand Maisonnat to become the provisional President. Maisonnat was a skilled diplomat and believed that war was the worst way to handle to the ongoing secession crisis. He believed that the Confederate States and the United States could peacefully split but needed the cooperation of Abraham Lincoln. To this end, he ordered Confederate General P.G.T Beauregard to stand down when Beauregard sought to attack Fort Sumter. Lincoln and Maisonnat were able to agree to a temporary peace in 1861 when the Confederate States agreed not to admit Virginia if the United States abandoned Fort Sumter.
The crisis continued well into the summer of 1861 at a virtual stalemate. Both sides didn't want to fire the first shot of the war, fearing that they would be seen as unfavorable by the European powers. The United Kingdom and France generally favored the Carolinians, as the French sought to protect their puppet state in Mexico and the British hoped to gain cheap cotton for their textiles industry. A fear of war was becoming increasingly prevalent in both countries, as Lincoln believed that the Union should be preserved and therefore would not negotiate with Carolinian diplomats that were sent to Washington. Maisonnat continued to control his generals to the best of his ability, but by fall he believed that war was imminent and feared that Carolina would accidentally start a war. The first major breakthrough in the conflict was in September of 1861 when Emperor Maximillian of the Empire of Mexico visited the provisional capital of Carolina in Bayonne la Vella. In the United States, this sparked fears that the French were planning to recognize Carolina, and Lincoln sent a telegram threatening war against France's Carribean possessions and Mexico should they recognize Carolina. This upset both the French and British governments, who then resolved to intervene in the crisis mostly on behalf of Carolina. The British and French sent an ultimatum to Lincoln saying that he should negotiate with Carolina or France and the United Kingdom would support Carolina in a war. At the same time, the allegiance of Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland were beginning to falter and public opinion across the United States supported negotiations with the Carolinians. Lincoln believed that the United States would not survive a dual Anglo-French invasion of the United States coupled with a war against Carolina and the potential loss of the border states. Therefore, a telegram was sent to President Maisonnat that President Lincoln was open to negotiating independence at a meeting in New York.
The peace conference in New York went relatively fast as Maisonnat had prepared to give up major concessions to the United States in exchange for independence. The Treaty of New York agreed that Carolina should pay its portion of the federal debt, buy all federal property within the Carolinian states. Carolina could not admit anymore U.S. states into the confederation, nor could it aid in any insurrection against the United States. Finally, the United States would be allowed to trade freely along the Mississippi River and a customs and trade union should be established at a later date. The treaty was signed on December 23rd, 1861 making it known as the Christmas Peace Treaty among both Americans and Carolinians.
The United Kingdom was influential in supporting Carolina following independence. British companies invested nearly $125 million in Carolinian infrastructure between 1862 and 1880. Relaxed trade regulations between the two countries meant that cheap cotton continued to flow to the United Kingdom, and some British companies believed prices were decreasing because of greater efficiency. This led to an economic reliance on the United Kingdom, one that the Carolina dreaded and that America feared. Americans believed that Britain's ultimate plan was to establish a dominion in Carolina. However, Carolina's close relationship with the United Kingdom likely avoided the implementation of the Neumoir Plan by France.
As early as 1867, the newly built Confederate States began running into major issues. The Confederal form of government weakened the central government to the point where it was hard to raise revenue. The country ran into similar issues as the United States under the Articles of Confederation, and many politicians began calling for political reform in the late 1860's.
In 1868, Leopold Lapierre was elected the second President of the Confederate States. Lapierre who was an avid Democrat, aimed to bring back political parties and successfully built a new Democratic Party in Carolina. Lapierre also oversaw the reconstruction of Carolina, but did little except extend the policies of the previous administration. This caused Lapierre to be seen as a lame duck president. At the same time, Carolina began developing a new national identity instead of the previous state identity. As Carolinians became more nationalistic, the states rights attitude began to fade removing much of the obstacles toward building a stronger federal government.
In 1873, Congress appointed a committee to meet and discuss potential modifications to the Confederate States Constitution in order to solve the issues currently facing the country. On August 18, the committee along with delegates from each of the states met at Mercer University in Macon, Georgia in order to put forth potential amendments to the constitution. The Macon Conference concluded on September 9, with three potential amendments to the constitution. One amendment allowed for Congress to pass tariffs, a second amendment defined federal and state powers, and a third amendment would limit the presidential term to two-four year terms. The first two amendments were ratified in 1875 while the third took considerable debate and was ratified in 1878 and went into effect in 1880. In 1874, Congress also voted to change the flag of Carolina to one that symbolized Carolinian culture rather than the Southern War and battle flag.
Transition to a Modern Nation
In 1880, Jacques Longurue was elected President of Carolina as a Democrat. Longurue was able to popularize the term Carolina, saying in a speech "We call ourselves Carolinians, so we should call this land Carolina". Although the government made no attempts to change the official name of Carolina, the public quickly popularized the phrase. Domestically, Longurue split from most Democrats in his vision for a New Carolina. While Carolina was among the top 10 industrialized countries in 1880, it still was in desperate need of further industrialization. Therefore, Longurue's plan began emphasizing free market trade principles, immigration, and an emphasis on industrialization. In 1884, he was elected for a second term and championed better relations between Carolina and the United States. In 1885, Longurue met with President Grover Cleveland in Washington, with Cleveland visiting Charleston later in the year. The two met in Norfolk, Virginia in 1886 and agreed to a treaty of mutual economic and military assistance. The resulting Norfolk Pact, led to further economic integration between the countries and a military alliance which has remained unbroken.
Many of the Carolinian aristocrats who led to the Democratic Party disagreed with President Longurue's New Carolina vision. As a result, the party nominated Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II for the Presidency in 1888. Many of Longurue's followers split and formed the Whig Party puting up Augustin Gauterot for the Presidency. The Whig's provided a strong showing, especially in North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama, but Lamar was ultimately elected President in a landslide. However, during Lamar's term, economic growth and immigration stagnated and led to a declining economy. The Whig's took advantage of the situation and made major gains in the 1890 midterm elections. However, it soon became apparent that Carolina's practice of slavery was the main reason for the declining growth. Manumission bills appeared in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Tennessee although they all failed.
The 1892, election proved disastrous for the Democratic Party, with Whig candidate Kevin Gauterot winning the presidency and the Whig Party taking control of Congress and the majority of state legislatures. In 1893, both North Carolina and Tennessee passed manumission bills. Both states saw an economic boost and by 1894, Georgia, Louisiana, and Florida had done the same. The country saw an overall economic boost under the Whig Party, which led to the Alabama and South Carolina legislatures being Whig controlled by 1894. Both states passed orders of manumission in 1895. Mississippi became the last vestige of slavery and being a Democratic Party stronghold it remained firmly in support of slavery. However, a declining economy, a runaway slave problem, and several slave rebellions led to the end of slavery in 1898.
Most freed slaves were considered as residents and not citizens, denying them the right to vote among other things. North Carolina and Tennessee both adopted clauses which made freed slaves citizens but denied them the right to vote. However, the Supreme Court case Atwood v. South Carolina ruled that former slaves were citizens and therefore were entitled to rights listed within the constitution including equal treatment under the law. However, black codes still were enacted in several states which severely limited the rights of African-Carolinians and compelled them to work in low-income labor. Other states passed segregation laws which did not restrict the rights of blacks but forced them to use separate facilities than whites. As a result, many African-Carolinians began to flee to the United States beginning the Great Migration.
Industrial output in Carolina tripled between 1895 and 1910 as the New Whig Party put in place pro-industry policies in the country. This was done without much socialist action in Carolina which set it apart from other industrialized countries. Toward the latter part of the century, a rise in populism within the rural community became prominent. These populists formed the Radical Liberal Party, the first major left-wing party in Carolina. It was mainly made up of angry farmers who aimed to lead an crusade of agrarianism against elites, cities, banks, railroads, and gold. The party was able to gain a majority in the North Carolina Legislature in 1898, however never gained a majority in Congress.
The Democratic Party gained back some power in the first decade of the 20th century, however the Whig's continued to remain prominent. The country made substantial improvements to education, infrastructure, and industry during the time, including education for blacks in some states. European immigration increased which helped to fuel industrialization in the country. By 1910, the country was the seventh wealthiest country in the world, ahead of Argentina but behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium.
World War I, 1920's, Great Depression, and World War II
Carolina supported the Entente in World War I early in the war, mainly by exporting food, cotton, and industrial products to the United Kingdom and France. However, the country entered into World War I in February of 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated Carolinian neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign. Unlike the United States, Carolina entered as a formal ally of the United Kingdom and France which had been historic allies of Carolina since the Southern War. Carolina sent army, navy, and air force division to fight in the war, and was able to mobilize 850,000 troops. The country suffered roughly 70,000 casualties by the end of the war in 1918. President Lucas Bosch took up a leading role at the Paris Peace Conference, advocating for self-determination in Germany, Eastern Europe, as well as the League of Nations. Bosch also advocated for a full intervention in Russia which never fully materialized.
Following the war, the Democratic Party resurged after winning the war for Carolina. Democratic Candidate Wade Hampton V was elected president in 1924. Hampton opened up Carolina to more free trade which benefited the economy in the short-term. However, his term was marred by the boll weevil which destroyed crops across Carolina and brought down the economy. At the same time, social unrest by blacks against black codes began shortly after Hamptons inauguration. A general-strike was conducted by African-Carolinians in hopes to eliminate black codes and gain voting rights. As unrest continued to get worse, Hampton proposed banning black codes, replacing it with segregation. A bill proposing this passed both the House and Senate and was put into law in 1925. While most blacks thought they may achieve voting rights from the bill, fear that blacks held marxist ideologies prevented that from occuring.
The 1928 elections were hotly contested but New Whig nominee Lionel Benoit won the presidency and a New Whig Congress was ushered in. The relative economic prosperity of the time ended with the Stock Market Crash in 1929, with Benoit taking most of the blame for the crash. The 1932 election saw four major political parties moving toward the Presidency. Populist movements drove the Radical Liberal party to the Far-left, and the new Palmetto Party offered a Carolinian version of fascism. In a surprise election, a new center-left party named the Progressive Party won the election against a nearly collapsed New Whig Party and a weakened Democratic Party. Adde's reforms mimicked those of Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States and the two began to cooperate extensively after 1933. The Better Plan package by Adde included the establishment of a social security system and the expansion of electricity in rural Carolina. Women gained the right to vote in 1934 by constitutional amendment. Adde resigned after one term due to failing health. In the 1936 election, Huey Long was elected President in a landslide victory against the Democratic and Progressive candidates. This was mainly due to his Share the Wealth program which mobilized poor white voters. However, the Radical Liberals did not secure a majority in Congress and none of his legislation was able to pass. Long attempted to use directorial measures to pass his bills, which led to the beginning of the impeachment process. However, Long was assassinated in 1938 before he could be indicted. His Vice-President William Arceneaux assumed the Presidency but did little to help Carolina. The Radical Liberal Party lost major support after Long's presidency and most voters began voting for the Progressive Party. In 1940, Democratic Candidate James F. Byrne was elected President.
While Byrne was staunchly anti-German and anti-Japanese, during the early stages of World War II, Carolina attempted to remain neutral in the conflict. However, it operated a program similar to the Lend-Lease Program supplying food to allied nations. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States invoked the Norfolk Pact and Carolina declared war on December 14. Carolina was able to send its Caribbean fleet from Cuba to Pearl Harbor to assist the United States in the Pacific war effort. Carolina played a considerable role in the Battle of Midway and helped to push south alongside Australian forces to liberate the Dutch East Indies and French Indochina. Carolina also played a major role in European Front, especially in Northern Europe leading campaigns in Freiga, the Netherlands, Norway, and Denmark. Carolina pushed southeast through the Netherlands and Belgium to meet with other allied forces heading east from France. During the war, Carolina was occasionally referred as fifth member of the "Four Policemen" of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with United States, Britain, the Soviet Union and China. While Carolina played a leading role at the Bretton Woods Conference, the country was not invited to the Yalta Conference and was not given a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.
Cold War and Civil Rights Era
Following the conclusion of World War II, the United States and Soviet Union jockeyed for power. Carolina was firmly within the United States sphere as a founding member of United Nations, NATO, OECD, and World Trade Organization. Carolina became a leader in the western-bloc, alongside the United States, France, and the United Kingdom.
The 1948 election saw the creation of the Dixiecrat Party led by Strom Thrumond. Many Dixiecrats were former Democrats who became worried that the Democratic leadership, which now contained many former Whigs sought to end segregation in the near-future. The party embraced right-wing populism and was able to win Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina to win the election. While against integration, lives for blacks actually got better under Thurmond's administration. Congress passed strong anti-lynching and anti-violence laws, making it a hate-crime to perform such activities. Thurmond also strongly supported the Carolinian military and aimed for Carolina to become a Great Power. Thurmond is accredited to growing Carolina's worldwide presence and beginning the country's nuclear program. Thurmond also entered Carolina into the Korean War in 1950, something that boosted his popularity.
Carolina continued under Democratic leadership following the end of Thurmond's second term in 1956 and George Wallace's election in 1968. The Democratic and Dixecrat Parties rivaled each other throughout the time period, as the Progressive's embracing of the civil rights movement led to their declining support in many states. Carolina entered into the Vietnam War in 1955 alongside the United States. However, Carolina continued to exercise the most influence in Latin America. In response to a popular movement which aimed for the independence of Cuba, Carolina allowed a referendum to decide the status of the country. In 1952, the country narrowly voted in favor of independence. The country achieved independence later that year under Juan Batista.
During this time period, the Carolinian Civil Rights Movement began, primarily under the leadership of Martin Luther King Jr.. The movement fought for the end of segregation along with voting rights for African-Carolinians. Similar, to the same movement in the United States, it used non-violent tactics to achieve their goals.
While Carolina had tolerated Fidel Castro's socialist regime in Cuba, that changed in 1962, when Soviet Missile sites were spotted in Cuba. During that time, Carolina cut off all diplomatic ties with Cuba, and led a naval blockade around the island with United States support. In response Cuba threatened to target Miami, Atlanta and Charleston should Carolina not back down. Castro also encouraged civil rights protesters to take up arms against Carolina in order to bring about a new socialist regime. Carolina ordered the acceleration of its nuclear missile program and the military was concentrated in Southern Florida and Gulf Coast. The Soviet's turned away short of the Carolinian-American blockade ending the crisis. In response, a new secure hotline was also set up between Charleston, Washington, and Moscow to increase communication.
At home, Carolina experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. The Warsiene Islands became a state in 1963, making it the second to last state to be admitted to Carolina.
Dixiecrat George Wallace was elected President in 1968 on a strong anti-integration stance. His strong actions as Governor of Alabama against protesters had provoked some controversy. However, the civil rights movement greatly accelerated during his leadership, especially after the assassination of Martin Luther King. John Lewis and Coretta Scott King assumed leadership of the movement. Public opinion began to turn in favor of the protesters after the Meridian Incident where Wallace nationalized the national guard to brutally stop protesters in Meridian, Mississippi. The Supreme Court in Thieobleu v. Confederate States ruled that the protesters had the right to protest, and Wallace could not break up the protests. The Carolinian economy stagnated during Wallace's second term, with some countries, especially African ones requesting UN sanctions against Carolina. The United States placed considerable pressure on Wallace to end segregation but Wallace refused. Florida, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia all passed legislation to begin integration and give African-Carolinians the right to vote. Democratic Candidate Jimmy Carter won the 1976 elections, and quickly lobbied Congress to pass Civil Rights legislation. The 1978 elections were the first elections where the majority of African-Carolinians could vote in, with the Progressive and Democratic Parties gaining widespread support and the Dixiecrats becoming a minor political party.
After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Carolina was able to enjoy excellent relations with Eastern European countries, helping to aid their economies. The country saw a period of recession from 1989 to 1992 with the decline of the manufacturing industry, but a period of growth from 1992 to 1994 aided by the growing high-tech industry. The country entered into the Gulf War in 1991 to protect the countries' oil interests and to prevent another oil shortage.
Beginning in 1994, Carolina entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the Carolina, Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. by January 1, 2008. Trade among the four partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.
Carolina hosted the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, which were meant to show the progression of Carolina from a rural society to a modern, global one.
Carolina entered into the War on Terror shortly after the United States, mainly due to the September 11 Attacks on the United States. Carolina declared war on Afghanistan on October 14, 2001 and entered into the Iraq War in 2003.
Carolina entered into the Great Recession in January of 2008. The recession was the second worst in the history of Carolina, only preceded by the Great Depression. During the time, the unemployment rate in Carolina skyrocketed to 15.5%. The recession was declared to be over in March of 2010. The recovery from the recession has been supported by the high-tech industry sector and clean manufacturing. In 2016, Carolina elected Nikki Haley as president, making her the first woman and first Indian-Carolinian President. Haley's presidency has overseen Carolina's entry into the Alliance of Independent Nations and Carolina's stronger global presence.
Carolina is 580,454 square miles making it the 19th largest country in the world for total area. Carolina is located in the southeastern area of Central North America, south and east of the United States and north of Cuba. The majority of Carolina is part of the humid subtropical climate zone, identified in the Köppen Climate types. However sections of the Appalachian Mountains in western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia and Qualla, are a part of the oceanic climate. Most of South Florida and the Warsiene Islands are part of either the Savannah or Monsoon Tropical Climates.
The area along the Atlantic Seaboard is mostly flat, and coastal areas are home to many inland marshes. Heading west toward Piedmont, the flat landscape gives away to the rolling hills and deciduous forests of the area. The Appalachian Mountains provide a divide between western and eastern Carolina. The Appalachian region is characterized by a cooler climate a moderate sized mountains. Continuing west, the Great Valley of eastern Tennessee brings back the rolling hills found in the Piedmont Region. The land continues to be very similar to that of the Piedmont throughout Tennessee. The western border of Carolina is defined the Mississippi River, a major north-south river that flows through the United States and partially through Carolina. The river is navigable and is was historically used to transport goods from Memphis south to New Orleans or the western Gulf port cities.
Southern Carolina and the Florida's typically are very flat, with the Appalachian Mountains turning to rolling hills in southwestern Georgia and northwestern Alabama. In Florida, the land is nearly completely flat with many swamps and inland lakes characterizing the area. Several inland bays such as Tampa Bay and Charlotte's Harbor are found along the Floridian coastlines.
The Warsiene Islands are a group of mostly flat islands found off the southwestern coast of South Florida. The islands share a similar landscape to that of the Florida Keys and nearby Cuba, with a long sandy coastline and a flat interior. The Warsiene Islands were not volcanic, rather it is believed that they were at one point part of Florida during the ice age when the Floridian Peninsula extended several hundred miles from where it is today.
The ecology of Carolina is very diverse, partially due to the ranging climates of the nation. Florida, South Florida, and the Warsiene Islands are home to the countries more tropical plants and animals. The endangered American Crocodile can be found only along the tip of South Florida and in the Warsiene Islands. The much more populous American Alligator can be found along the southern and eastern coasts, and are often associated with Floridian wildlife. Deer are very populous in central and northern Carolina, and their abundance leads to a popular deer hunting season in Carolina. However they can cause problems, especially with motor vehicles. Carolina is also home to animals such as the Floridan Panther a critically endangered species native to the Everglades. The Florida Panther is the national mammal, voted in 2003 replacing the Black Bear. The Bald Eagle, which is a breeding resident of eastern Carolina, is a national symbol of Carolina as well as being the national bird.
Carolina's fauna is equally as diverse ranging from tropical plants in the southern portion of the nation, to more deciduous plants in the northern half. Palm Trees are abundant and found along the Carolinian coastline and throughout the Florida's. Pine Trees are abundant throughout Carolina, and the Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) is the national tree of Carolina. The rare Venus flytrap is only native to North Carolina and South Carolina.
Carolina only has 7 National Parks, 1 in North Carolina, 1 in South Carolina, 1 in Tennessee, 2 in the Warsiene Islands, and 3 in South Florida. The largest National Park is Everglades National Park in South Florida. There are many state parks that are found throughout Carolina, which are owned and maintained by the individual states and not the national government.
The Carolinian Department of the Census estimates that in 2016 the population of Carolina was 89,280,458 people. Carolina and the United States are the only major industrialized nations, where large population growth is expected. Carolina is currently the 21st most populous country in the world by population. However, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is expected in surpass Carolina in the next few years. The birthrate of Carolina was not recorded until the 1910 Census when women were having 4.02 children. That has since decreased 1.89 children in 2010. Foreign-Born population and immigration have allowed Carolina's population to continue to increase through recent years. Carolina saw the largest number of immigrants in 2015 when 406,837 immigrant applications were approved. Many of these came from Western Europe, Asia, and Latin America. American, Canadian, Friegan, French, and UK citizens do not need a visa to move or visit Carolina. Carolina has taken in many Cuban "refugees", many of which have fled by boat and landed in either South Florida or the Warsiene Islands. Cuban immigrants are regarded as refugees through a policy known as Wet Feet Dry Feet and thus subject to different treatment because of the Carolinian government's ongoing disputes with the Cuban government. Carolina accepts immigrants from most of the world, however, is based on a Merritt system which highly favors immigrants from developed countries. Carolina has generally been hesitant toward resettling Syrian and other Middle Eastern refugees which have caused some criticism from the international community for percieved racism.
Largest metropolitan areas in Carolina by population (2016 Estimate)
|Tampa–St. Petersburg||Florida||3,032,171||Vertbourg||South Carolina||895,923|
|Jacquesville||Florida||1,504,980||Charleston||Carolina Capital District/South Carolina||761,155|
According to a 2012 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Carolina is the among the most educated countries in the world; the country has a high number of adults having tertiary education, with 41 percent of Carolinian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree.  Carolina invests fairly large amount of it's budget toward education. The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than 16 000 USD per student). As of 2014, 79 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent. Carolina is considered not allowing high school kids to drop out at 16, requiring them to complete their high school education. President Nikki Haley has expressed support for this bill dubbed the Complete Package Act.
According to the 2010 Census, the largest group of Carolinian self-identified as White (69.1%). That was followed by African Carolinian (22.1%), Asian (2.3%). Native Americans comprised 1.2% of the population. 8.4% identified as Hispanic or of Hispanic origin.
A variety of languages are spoken by Carolinian's, however the nations main three mother tongues, Atlantsiike (derived from West Frisian), English, and French are the first language of around 91% of Carolinian's. Cherokee is not a national language, however is considered a mother-tongue in Carolina, used officially by Qualla. The largest, non-mother-tongue of Carolina is Spanish, which comprises another 6% of Carolinian first languages. German, Swedish, Frisian, Chinese (mainly Mandarin), and Portuguese are common first languages among the other 2% of Carolinian's. Most of these people are immigrants to Carolina, however Swedish and German pockets and towns do exist in North Carolina and Georgia.
Atlantsiike is the primary language of central and eastern Carolina, primarily spoken in Florida, Georgia, Georgje, and South Carolina. Atlantsiike is different from most languages spoken in Carolina, in that it was derived from West Frisian, however through diffusion with English and French, became it's own language. Today almost all of the original "Frisian Speaking Areas" defined in 1820 have become part of the Atlantsiike speaking area. South Carolina has seen the largest growth in Atlantsiike, with a nearly 43% increase in native speakers between 1900 and 2010. Atlantsiike is taught in all Carolinian Primary and Secondary Schools, and all Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an Atlantsiike speaking student.
English is the primary language of northern Carolina. It is the only official language of North Carolina but is also an official language in Georgia, South Florida, and Tennessee. Most public documents throughout Carolina are written in English along with Atlantsiike and French. The English language in North Carolina has attracted many American and Canadian immigrants throughout the past 50 years, who have come to Carolina looking for a job in the growing economy. English is taught in all Carolinian Primary and Secondary Schools, and all Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an English speaking student.
French, or Cajun is the official language of most of western Carolina. Cajun French or French is an official language in Alabama, Mississippi, and West Tennessee, however is recognized as a "primary minority language" in Georgia, and Tennessee. French was originally brought to Carolina by the French colonization of western Carolina, known as the French Colony of Bilox. Overtime the French language has evolved, primarily through diffusion with Atlantsiike/West Frisian. French is taught in all Carolinian Primary and Secondary Schools, and all Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an French speaking student.
Cherokee is not recognized as a national language of Carolina, due to the small size of the area it is spoke in, however if considered a mother-tongue in Carolina. Cherokee is nearly exclusively used in the state of Qualla, and is found throughout the state. The Cherokee language of Carolina is considered to be more original than the version in Oklahoma, often considered American Cherokee. That is because the Cherokee of North Carolina have been confined to their current state for over two centuries, while most of the American Cherokee have picked up either French or English influences from their move in the 1820's. Cherokee is taught as a second language in some high-level high schools, however is not commonly found. All Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an Cherokee speaking student.
Spanish is considered a common language in Carolina, however is not considered an official language or a mother-tongue. Spanish has been present in Carolina since the Spanish takeover of the Warsiene Islands in 1689. More recently, Spanish is being brought to Carolina from Cuban refugees and Latin American immigrants. Most primary and secondary schools teach Spanish as a second language, however native Spanish speakers are expected to learn the native tongue of their region. Therefore, colleges and universities do not have to provide accommodations for Spanish speaking students.
Frisian, German, Swedish and Chinese are all found in Carolina, however only make up a very small percentage the population. In the 2012 National Education Standards of Carolina, learning another native Carolinian tongue (Atlantsiike, English, French) other than their own, is a requirement to receive a high school diploma or GED.
The Carolinian Constitution guarantees the free practice of religion, and says that the practice of religion can not be obstructed by the government. However the Gearkomste can and has passed a bill to make Christianity the official religion of Carolina. This is highly debated in Carolina with some advocating for Carolina to have no official religion. Carolina is a deeply Christian nation, with nearly 87% of the population identifying as Christians. Of that 87%, 73% identify as protestant and 27% identify as Catholic or another branch of Christianity. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism, and the Southern Baptist Convention is the largest individual Protestant denomination. About 26% of Carolinian's identify as Evangelical Protestants, while 15% are Mainline and 7% belong to a traditionally Black church. Roman Catholicism in Carolina originates from Spanish and French colonization of the Americas, and later grew because of Irish, Italian, Polish, German and Hispanic immigration.
Most of Carolina is a part of the North American Bible Belt, which stretches from North Carolina to West Texas and south from Orlando to central Virginia. Socially conservative Evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. South Florida is considered the major outlyer to this, which is seemingly less religious than the rest of Carolina.
Government and Politics
|This article is part of a series on the|
|Politics of the
Confederate States of America
Carolina is a federal republic and is the fifth oldest surviving federation in the world. The government is highly based off of the government of the United States, with the constitution being modeled after its American counterpart. It is a representative democracy "in which in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". The Carolinian constitution serves as the country's supreme legal document, which devises a system of checks and balances between the three branches of the government.
In the Carolinian Federal system, citizens are usually subjected to three levels of government, federal, state, and local. The responsibilities of the local government are usually split between county/parish and municipal governments. In all state and local governments, positions are elected based on pl In Carolina, citizens are usually subjected to three levels of government, national, state, and local (either parish or city). In all cases executive and legislative officials in both the state and federal government are elected by plurality vote.
The federal government is composed of three branches:
- Legislative Branch: The bicameral congress, made up of the Senate and House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment in which it may remove a seated member of the Carolinian government.
- Executive: The President is Commander-in-Chief, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to legislative override), and can appoint members of the cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.
- Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the President with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.
The House of Representatives has 309 voting members each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are added and reapportioned every 10 years. Each district roughly amounts to 200,000 people. In the 2010 census, no states had the minimum amount of one representative, and Florida had the most representatives with 94 seats.
The Senate has 20 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms. One third of the Senate is open for reelection every two years. All nine states along with the Carolina Capital District have Senators. The President serves a six year term and may only serve in the office for one term. The President is not directly elected through popular vote, but rather by an indirect electoral college in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the Carolina Capital District. The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice of Carolina, has nine members, who serve for life.
The state governments are structured in a similar fashion. The Governor, which is the chief executive of each state is directly elected. Some state judges and cabinet members are appointed by the governor while others are elected by popular vote.
The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Section 9, Article 3 says that the Writ of Habeas Corpus must not be suspended unless in times of rebellion or during public danger. The constitution has been amended 14 times, with the second, third, fourth, and seventh, eight, and ninth forming the basis of Carolinian individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided.
Carolina is a federal republic, made up of twelve states and once federal district. The states are the principal administrative districts in the country. The states are further divided into counties, known as parishes in Louisiana and Mississippi. The Carolina Capital District is the federal district, containing the national capital, Charleston. The states and the Carolina Capital District choose the President of Carolina. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the Carolina Capital District has two (because of the 23rd Amendment).
Congressional districts are reapportioned every ten years, coinciding with the national census. On the national level, each representative district must have roughly 200,000 inhabitants, as per the 4th amendment. The total number of voting Representatives is 309. There are also two non-voting representatives from the Capital District.
Carolina recognizes tribal sovereignty to a certain extent. Tribes are subject to their own courts and legislature, however, have to follow both federal and state level laws. A significant movement has pushed for reservations to become states, however, the small size of the tribes has become problematic, as well as a large number of reservations outnumbering other states in the Senate. Most movements associate a separate state for the Cherokee in the Eastern Cherokee Indian Reserve named Qualla, and a Choctaw state formed from the Mississippi Choctaw Reservation.
Citizenship is granted at birth in all states and the Capital District.
Carolina has operated under a two party or three party system for most of its history. Most major third parties have risen from populist movements such as the Freedom Party, Prohibition Party and Dixiecrat Party. Throughout the 1920's and 30's the collapse of the New Whig Party led to a power vacuum which allowed a three and sometimes four party system to rise to power. Following the collapse of the Freedom Party and the presidency of Wilson Adde, the country returned to a two state system with the Progressive and a weakened Democratic Party. The debate over segregation led Strom Thurmond of South Carolina to create the States Rights Democratic Party, which has retained some popularity in Alabama and Mississippi as the Democratic Party moves to the center.
Within Carolinian political culture, the center-right Democratic Party is considered "conservative", the right-wing Dixiecrat Party is considered "right-wing" or "ultraconservative" and the center-left Progressive Party is considered "liberal". Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, and the Warsiene Islands are considered battleground states where the Progressive Party has a chance against the Democratic and Dixiecrat Parties, while Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina generally are right-wing states where Progressive's rarely win. The political climate influences the probability of success of the Progressive Party in Louisiana, North Alabama, and Tennessee.
Democrat Nikki Haley, the winner of the 2016 presidential election, is serving as the 23rd President of Carolina. Leadership in the Senate includes Democratic Vice President Marco Rubio, President Pro-Tempore Lindsey Graham, Majority Leader Richard Burr, and Minority Leader Bill Nelson. Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the House Marsha Blackburn, Majority Leader Steve Scalise and Minority Leader John Lewis.
Carolina has an established structure of foreign relations. Carolina is a founding member of the United Nations and permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. It is a member of the Alliance of Independent Nations, G8, G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, NATO, the IMF and World Bank. Nearly all nations have embassies in Charleston and consulates throughout the country. Carolina does not currently have any formal relations with Cuba, Iran, North Korea, or the Republic of China (although Carolina still maintains relations with Taiwan).
Carolina has a "Special Relationship" with the United States and Meridiana, and is closely allied with Canada, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, the Philippines, several European Union countries such as France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. In addition, Carolina is closely allied with several Alliance of Independent Nations members such as Illium, and Teiko. It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and Cooperation of American Alliance Nations, as well as through free trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Canada, Lower Columbia, Marquette, Mexico, and the United States. In 2017, the Carolina spent a net $6.5 billion on official development assistance. As a share of Carolina's large gross national income (GNI), however, the Carolinian contribution ranked among the last in a study among 23 donor states.
Taxes in Carolina are levied at the federal, state and local government level. These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. Carolina's tax code went under major simplification in 2011 to cut-out loop holes in the code. The simplification has allowed Carolina to make it's first surpluses since 2004. Under the code the top 1% of the population pays roughly the same as they did in the previous code (about 35%). However middle and lower classes got a unforeseen tax break, with their income taxes lowering to just 10%. Those who live below the poverty line do not pay taxes. The lower income taxes are supplemented with a national 10% sales tax. Business taxes are unconceivably low in Carolina, with high taxes on industrial and other dirty industries. Several important industries such as the automotive industry get very high taxes. Import taxes in Carolina are high in Carolina, except for NAFTA members and other countries with free-trade agreements including Santa Catarina and some EU members. Before the new tax code, some companies would import goods to the United States and then to Carolina, however the new code ended this with point-of-export taxes.
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Confederate States Department of War administers the armed forces including the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and the Air Force. The Coast Guard is run by the Border Force during times of peace and by the Navy during times of war. Carolina has approximately 345,000 troops on active duty. The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 980,000.
Military service in Carolina is voluntary, though conscription can be reinstated during times of war. The Armed Service Act gives the President the ability to invoke conscription during times of war. Carolinian forces are able to be deployed rapidly around the world by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's seven active aircraft carriers, and Marine expeditionary units at sea with the Navy's Atlantic and Pacific fleets. Carolina operates 134 overseas bases and facilities, the majority of which are operated jointly with the United States or other NATO member nations.
The military budget for Carolina in 2017 was $161.2 billion, making Carolina the third highest military spender after the United States and China. Carolina's military expenditures amount to about 3.4% of the country's GDP, making it the third highest in the world among the world's top 15 military spenders after Saudi Arabia and Russia. Carolinian defense spending as a percentage of GDP ranked 22nd globally in 2017 according to the CIA. Carolinas defense spending has generally declined since the end of the Cold War. In 1969, Carolinian defense spending amounted to 15.6% of GDP, however, has since decreased drastically.
Carolina is currently engaged in two major conflicts worldwide, the War in Afganistan and Operation Blackbeard Blockade. The latter is Carolina's naval and coast guard operations within the wider War on Drugs that aims to keep illegal drugs from coming into Carolina from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. The last Carolinian troops departed Iraq in September of 2011. Approximately 26,000 troops are currently in Afganistan assisting the United States and other coalition countries with counter-terrorism operations.
Carolina has the second most extensive rail network in North America, behind the United States along with the most extensive passenger rail network in the Americas. The railway network is owned by multiple companies, with the largest being GoSpoar, CSX Corporation, and Nashville Southern. High speed rail is operated by GoSpoar along with Carolina SunSpeed Rail and is planned to be operated by All Aboard Florida following the completion of their line to Orlando. Intercity rail has been majorly kickstarted with the creation of GoSpoar in 2016 with introduced a major network of high speed trains across Carolina. Rider levels on GoSpoar and Carolina SunSpeed Rail reached a record high of 35,634,923 in 2017, which is a record high for passenger rail ridership in Carolina. Carolina's rail network includes connections to the United States, its only neighbor.
Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles with approximately which operate on a network of approximately 765,021 miles of public roads. Within this network is the Interstate Highway System with conjoins with the Interstate Highway System in the United States, along with the C.S. Highway System and various state highway systems operated by individual states. Carolinian roads, especially those in the northern and western regions host significant traffic from the United States. The vast majority of roads in Carolina are free to use beyond a yearly vehicle registration fee to the states. However, toll roads are becoming more popular, especially in Georgia, Florida, and North Carolina. The world's fourth largest car market, Carolina has 790 vehicles per 1,000 people making Carolina the highest per capita vehicle ownership rate in the world. Around 50% of these vehicles are vans, SUV's, or trucks. The new car market is generally fairly diverse, with Carolina Motors Group clenching 23% of the market, followed by Ford with 18%.
Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is the largest airport in the world and the largest hub for Carolinian airline Delta Air Lines. Charlotte, Memphis, Miami, Nashville, New Orleans, Orlando, and Raleigh-Durham are all major hubs that connect large portions of Carolina along with many international destinations. Alongside Delta Air Lines, AirTran, Eastern Air Lines, Pan American World Airways, and Spirit Airlines are some of the largest airlines in North America. There are twelve major ports in Carolina, the largest of which is the Port of New Orleans which is along the Gulf of Mexico. Carolina has many navigable rivers and canals which connect inland areas of the country with the Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean.