Carolina

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This is an article related to the Confederate States of Carolina Carolina


Confederate States of America
États confédérés d'Amérique
Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin)
"Under God, our Vindicator"
Anthem: Dixie
Location of Carolina (dark green)In North America (grey)In the Alliance of Independent Nations (navy)
Location of Carolina (dark green)
In North America (grey)
In the Alliance of Independent Nations (navy)
Domestic Map of Carolina with States and Major Cities Shown
CapitalCharleston
46°13′N 123°34′W / 46.217°N 123.567°W / 46.217; -123.567
Official language(s) English, French
Recognised national languages Atlantsiike
Demonym Carolinian
Government Federal presidential
constitutional republic
 -  President Nikki Haley (D)
 -  Vice-President Marco Rubio (D)
 -  Speaker of the House Marsha Blackburn (D)
Legislature Congress
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
 -  Provisional Government February 8, 1861 
 -  Permanent constitution February 22, 1862 
 -  Treaty of Paris August 1, 1863 
 -  Last polity admitted April 11, 1963 
Area
 -  Total 1,046,882.85 km2 
404,203.73 sq mi 
Population
 -  2017 estimate 66,387,621 
 -  2010 census 61,687,052 
 -  Density 63.41/km2 
164.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
 -  Total $3.221 Trillion (3rd in AIN)
 -  Per capita $48,518 (4th in AIN)
HDI (2016) 0.909 (very high) (10th in AIN)
Currency Carolinian Dollar ($) (CGU)
Time zone (UTC-5 to -6)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC-4 to -5)
Date formats mm/dd/yyyy
Drives on the right
Simlympic code UCC
Internet TLD .uc
Calling code +1

The Confederate States of America (CSA) (French: États confédérés d'Amérique), commonly referred to as Carolina or the Confederate States, is a federal republic composed of nine states, and a federal district. At 404,203 square miles (1,046,882 squre km2) and with over 66 million people, Carolina is the 28th largest country in the world and 22nd most populous. The capital is Charleston, the largest city is Jacksonville, while the largest metro area is the Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach metropolitan area. Carolina is located in North America south and east of the United States. The Warsiene Islands comprise of an archipelago in the northwestern Caribbean.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago, with European colonization beginning in the 16th century. France established a Hugenot Colony at Charlesfort (now Charleston) in 1562 which remains the oldest permanently settled site in Carolina. After the Huguenot Wars, England took possession of most of northern and eastern Carolina in the modern-day states of Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Spain established a permanent settlement at St. Augustine which anchored their Florida colony, and Friega established settlements in the Warsiene Islands. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, British Carolina retained its cultural ties to France and developed a distinct culture from the northern colonies. Numerous disputes between the colonies and Great Britain following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution and the Carolinian states became a part of the newly formed United States. Growing worry and resentment over northern encroachment on Carolinian lifestyles led all nine states joining to form the Confederate States of Carolina in the Southern War. France and the United Kingdom intervened on humanitarian reasons following the Emancipation Proclamation and a fear of race war within Carolina. The Treaty of Paris established Carolina as an independent state, however the country released claims over the non-Francophone states that had seceded. The first states to end slavery in Carolina did so in 1893 and the practice was abolished in 1898. Carolina affirmed its role as a world power in World War I and reaffirmed its role in World War II. During the 1960's and 1970's a popular movement brought an end to segregation and allowed African-Carolinians to vote. During the Cold War, Carolina stood firmly on the side of the United States, and developed a nuclear missile program to deter Cuba and other nearby threats.

Carolina is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, and other international organizations; and is pending as a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations. Carolina is a highly developed country with the world's third largest by nominal GDP and ninth largest by GDP (PPP). Carolina ranks highly in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, and productivity per person. While the Carolina economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services, the country still retains a significant manufacturing sector. Carolina is one of the foremost military powers in the world, ranking third on military spending behind the United States and China.

Etymology

The word Carolina originally derived from French colonists who settled in the region. They named the region Caroline in honor of French King Charles IX. When the colony was taken over by the English in 1629, it was renamed as Carolina, the anglicized spelling. Scholars debate if the English simply translated the name or named it after Charles II of England. In most of the Francophone world, Carolina is known as Caroline, however due to language integration, it is known as Carolina in Carolinian French. The country is also known as Karolina in Atlantsiike.

History

Indigenous and European contact

Etowah Indian Mounds, one of the large chiefdom in the Mississippian Culture located in modern day Georgia

The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival. Some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies. After the Spanish conquistadors made the first contacts, the native population declined for various reasons, primarily from diseases such as smallpox and measles. Violence was not a significant factor in the overall decline among Native Americans, though conflict among themselves and with Europeans affected specific tribes and various colonial settlements.

In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares. Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.

Settlements

Founding of Fort Caroline in French Florida

The first attempts to colonize modern-day Carolina were by the Spanish in 1521. Ponce de León and 200 other men sailed from Cuba to set up a colony in southwestern Florida, most likely near Charlotte Harbor. However due to attacks by the nearby Calusa tribe, the men had to return in July, 1521.

In 1526 de Ayllón led an expedition of some 600 people to the South Carolina coast. After scouting possible locations as far south as Ponce de León Inlet in Florida, the settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape was established in the vicinity of Sapelo SoundGeorgje. Disease, hunger, cold and Indian attacks led to San Miguel being abandoned after only two months. About 150 survivors returned to Spanish settlements.

In 1562, Charles IX, under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny sent Jean Ribault and a group of Huguenot settlers in an attempt to colonize the Atlantic coast and found a colony on a territory which will take the name of the French Florida. They discovered the probe and Port Royal Island, which is now called by Parris Island in South Carolina, on which he built a fort named Charlesfort (present-day Charleston). The fort was later moved further to the north, on the site of present-day Charleston, South Carolina.

A second colony was established near the mouth of the St. James River. While beginning peacefully at first, the Spanish opposed the Huguenot based colony for religious reason. The recently appointed Spanish Governor of Florida Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés was dispatched from Saint Augustine with the intent on destroying the French colony. The Spanish led an army through a hurricane and launched a surprise assault on the fort on September 20. Only around 50 men and women who were taken prisoner survived the assault.

The colony at Charlesfort quickly grew as a result of Huguenot immigration from France. The main focus of the colony was along the present-day coast of South Carolina, however claimed a northern border at the James River in Virginia. In 1630 the colony was officially called the Caroline Colony. By 1650, the colony was controlled land ranging from the Savannah River in the south to the Cape Fear River in the north. Tobacco was the main staple of the economy in the colony and plantations in the colony grew most of France's tobacco trade.

Early Colonial History

St. Augustine, Florida. The oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in Carolina. (est. 1565)

During the Huguenot Rebellions in France, Caroline saw a large influx in immigration as people fled persecution in France. Leaders of the rebellions fled to the frontier of the colony, near Augusta and Colomb. In 1626, France tried to extend laws against Huguenots to Carolina, as well as restrict immigration to the colony. Leaders met in Villeneuve to discuss the colony joining as a part of the Third Huguenot Rebellion, hoping to gain support from England. The leaders declared independence as the Huguenot Republic, whose government was meant to be an interim government until support from England could arrive. The republic never had much authority and the Huguenot Assembly only met once, however became a part of the Huguenot identity.

The Virginia Company initially sent a militia south to take Caroline from the French. However, resistance against the Virginians caused the militia to turn back before reaching Wilmington. The English invaded and captured Charlesfort in 1628 and also took the Cape Fear and Savannah River basins. With most of the colony under the control of the English, the French surrendered it at the Treaty of Ales. The name of the colony was anglicized to Carolina, and subsequently became the Province of Carolina.

The Charter for Carolina in 1629 gave control of the land between the 31st and 36th parallels to Sir Robert Heath who avidly wanted to continue Huguenot immigration to the colony. Under Heath, Huguenot immigration soared, furthering developing the colony. Most settlers were small farmers, however some industries developed in coastal towns. Cash crops included tobacco, rice and wheat. English and Scot-Irish settlers also immigrated to Carolina which caused some division between those not willing to adapt to Huguenot traditions and other settlers.

A large scale slave trade began, mostly done by English privateers. Due to less diseases and better working conditions, slaves in Carolina and other English colonies traditionally lived longer than those to the south. This led to a large increase in the number of slaves in Carolina. Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery and colonies passed acts for and against the practice. However, by 1700 slaves were beginning to replace indentured servants.

A map showing the evolution of the Province of Carolina, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia during British colonialism

In 1710, the Province of Carolina was split into the Province of North Carolina and the Province of South Carolina. This was mainly due to the northern section growing significantly different from the southern half. Northern Carolina had become much more English speaking with around 30% of the population being of English or Scot-Irish descent. Transportation and communication was also difficult between the two colonies, and a seperate governor had administered the northern part since 1691.

With the British colonization of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established. All had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism. With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Huguenot immigration continued, which allowed French speaking population to stay the dominant ethnic group within the three Carolinian colonies. Huguenots became known as Carolinians in the early 1700's. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed. The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest in both religion and religious liberty.

During the Seven Years' War (in the Carolina and the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French. Unlike in the Carolinian colonies, the francophone population remained politically isolated from the other British colonies. The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.

American Revolution and Antebellum Years

The American Revolutionary War was the first successful war of independence by a colony, against its colonial power. The Carolinian colonies generally were more reluctant to join the American Revolution. This stemmed off fears of indian raids and slave uprisings during and after the war. Georgia became the most reluctant colony to join the American Revolution because of constant Indian raids which affected the territory. North and South Carolina sent delegated to both the First and Second Continental Congress, while Georgia only sent delegates to the second. Delegates from all three signed the Lee Resolution which officially declared independence, along with the Declaration of Independence.

Great Britain was forced to recognize the independence of the United States following their defeat at the Battle of Yorktown. Following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, American sovereignty was established east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes.

The Revolution provided a shock to slavery in Carolina. Thousands of slaves took advantage of wartime disruption to find their own freedom, catalyzed by the British Governor Dunmore of Virginia's promise of freedom for service. Many others were removed by Loyalist owners and became slaves elsewhere in the Empire. Between 1770 and 1790, there was a sharp decline in the percentage of blacks – from 61% percent to 44% in South Carolina and from 45% to 36% in Georgia.

Slaves on a South Carolina plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790)

Cotton became dominant in the Dixie region after 1800. Following the invention of the cotton gin, short staple cotton could be grown more widely. This led to an explosion of cotton cultivation, especially in the frontier uplands of Georgia, Alabama, as well as riverfront areas of the Mississippi Delta. Migrants poured into those areas in the early decades of the 19th century, which spread the Carolinian culture out west. In addition migrants from the northern parts of the US as well as other Americans who spoke English mixed with Carolinians in the west. The explosion of cotton created a large demand for slave labor, and the institution became vital to many parts of the Southern/Carolinian United States.

With the opening up of frontier lands after the government forced most Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi, there was a major migration of both whites and blacks to those territories. From the 1820s through the 1850s, more than one million enslaved Africans were transported to Dixie in forced migration, two-thirds of them by slave traders and the others by masters who moved there. Planters in states such as North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia sold slaves excess to their needs as they shifted from tobacco to mixed agriculture. Many enslaved families were broken up, as planters preferred mostly strong males for field work.

The issue regarding slavery led to the creation of of two distinct geographical groups in the United States, the north and the south. However, a third ethnic group centered around the Carolinian became more vocal as it saw encroachment on it's lifestyle by the north. Carolinians largely had their own identity within the United States, and were culturally and linguistically separate from English speaking "Americans". While most upper class Carolinians knew English, much of the lower class did not which created the divide. At the same time, slave owners tried to use this divide to claim that the federal government could not regulate slavery, as it vowed to protect the culture of the Carolinians.

Before the Civil War, the number of immigrants arriving at Southern ports began to increase, although the North continued to receive the most immigrants. Huguenots continued to immigrate to Carolina, where they adapted to the culture and became a part of Carolinian society. Numerous Irish immigrants settled in New Orleans, establishing a distinct ethnic enclave now known as the Irish Channel. Germans also went to New Orleans and its environs, resulting in a large area north of the city (along the Mississippi) becoming known as the German Coast.

By 1840, New Orleans was the wealthiest city in the country and the third largest in population. The success of the city was based on the growth of international trade associated with products being shipped to and from the interior of the country down the Mississippi River. New Orleans also had the largest slave market in the country, as traders brought slaves by ship and overland to sell to planters across the South. New Orleans along with Charleston became the western center of commerce for the Carolinian states in the Deep South. The city was a cosmopolitan port with a variety of jobs that attracted more immigrants than other areas of the South. Because of lack of investment, however, construction of railroads to span the region lagged behind the North. Most Carolinians relied most heavily on river traffic for getting their crops to market and for transportation.

Southern War

By 1856, the South had lost control of Congress, and was no longer able to silence calls for an end to slavery—which came mostly from the more populated, free states of the North. The Republican Party, founded in 1854, pledged to stop the spread of slavery beyond those states where it already existed. The plantation class in Carolina responded negatively to repeated calls of slavery from northerners, many believing that the north was trying to undermine their social and economic system. Congress was also against the extension of slavery into western territories, which was protested by Carolinians, seeing it as a ploy to make sure the west stayed in the hands of English speaking Americans.

The bombardment of Fort Sumter which began the Southern War.

After Abraham Lincoln was elected the first Republican president in 1860, South Carolina declared secession from the United States under the pretense that the federal government had refused to protect Carolinians. Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, all with large majorities of Carolinians, seceded before February of 1861 and formed the Confederate States of America. Texas also seceded in attempt to preserve slavery in February and was admitted to the CSA. The United States government, both outgoing and incoming, refused to recognize the Confederacy, and when the new Confederate President Fernand Maisonnat ordered his troops to open fire on Fort Sumter in April 1861, there was an overwhelming demand, North and South, for war. Following the Battle of Fort Sumter, North Carolina and Tennessee, the last two Carolinian majority states seceded and joined the Confederacy. Virginia and Arkansas also seceded, hoping to preserve slavery.

Early in the war, the Union was able to take control of the border states of Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri before they were able to secede. The Confederacy won several early battles in the war, primarily in Virginia where the Union army tried to invade to capture the capital in Richmond. By 1862, the Union was able to control the Cumberland and Tennessee River Valleys, and was prepared to invade and capture New Orleans. The United States also had established a blockade around the Confederacy which had cut much of it's shipping. However, in early 1863 a French diplomatic team was dispatched with the intent of talking with the Confederate government regarding recognition. The French saw the largely French-descended Confederacy as trying to break from an oppressive Anglo-Saxon United States. At the same time the French believed the Confederacy would be sympathetic to French goals in Mexico. Following the defeat at Gettysburg and the Emancipation Proclamation, France became vocally interested in supporting the Confederacy, which also added to a resurgence in British interest in the same. In late 1863, a French envoy was dispatched to Richmond to discuss recognition with the Confederacy. When the Americans captured the ship, the French recognized the south and declared intent to mobilize their navy to quash the US blockade.

Following the French announcement, the US and France agreed that if the Carolinian majority states were given independence that France would no longer intervene. Later that year, riots erupted in New York, Philadelphia, Boston and other major cities across the north, protesting the draft and the war. Northerners believed France would intervene should the war not end soon, and Lincoln needed to call peace. Rumors circulated of New England declared secession from the United States and supporting the south if the war didn't end soon. With decreasing popular support for the war, Lincoln agreed to a peace conference in London between the United States, Confederate States, France, and the United Kingdom.

Map showing claims and losses of the Confederate States during and after the Southern War.
Pink: Territories claimed but never fully controlled
Orange: Territories lost under Peace of London

The Confederate States was mostly at the mercy of the United Kingdom, France, and the United States at the peace conference. The United States wanted as little independence and the weakest confederacy possible. Lincoln also sought to end slavery within the Confederate States as a condition for independence. The United Kingdom sought full independence for the Confederate States as well as economic assistance but hoped this would aid their cotton imports from the American south. While they did not support the institution of slavery, the United Kingdom believed banning it would cause economic collapse in the country and sought to continue extracting cheap cotton. France had created a plan called the Neumoir Plan. Worried about the effects of the end of the war in Mexico, the French created a plan that would evacuate Maximilian from Mexico and place him onto the throne in the Confederate States, either through a certain group or an orchestrated coup. France desperately wanted the Confederate States to retain Texas in order to prevent the United States from intervening in Mexico. The peace conference concluded that only the majority francophone states should be allowed to gain independence, a win for the United States. However, the United Kingdom and the United States would supply some aid to help with economic recovery. France also believed that the loss of land would create political turmoil and make it easier for them to subjugate Carolina to a puppet state. The Confederate States was also given 30 years to end the institution of slavery within the country. The Peace on London was signed on March 17, 1864.

Early Republic

The "Confederate Refugee" town of Edenton, North Carolina c. 1869

Following the Peace of London, thousands of people in Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas began migrating to the remaining Confederate States. These new "Confederate Refugees" primarily settled in Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Most former Confederate officials decided to flee out of fear of being charged with treason. Others left in order to continue the practice of slavery. State governments in Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Mississippi gave land grants to new refugees.

The United Kingdom was influential in supporting the reconstruction of Carolina following the Southern War. British companies invested nearly $1 billion in Carolinian infrastructure between 1864 and 1880. Relaxed trade regulations between the two countries meant that cheap cotton continued to flow to the United Kingdom, and some British companies believed prices were decreasing because of greater efficiency. This led to an economic reliance on the United Kingdom, one that the Carolina dreaded and that America feared. Americans believed that Britain's ultimate plan was to establish a dominion in Carolina. However, Carolina's close relationship with the United Kingdom likely avoided the implementation of the Neumoir Plan by France.

As early as 1867, the newly built Confederate States began running into major issues. The Confederal form of government weakened the central government to the point where it was hard to raise revenue. The country ran into similar issues as the United States under the Articles of Confederation, and many politicians began calling for political reform in the late 1860's.

In 1868, Leopold Lapierre was elected the second President of the Confederate States. Lapierre who was an avid Democrat, aimed to bring back political parties and successfully built a new Democratic Party in Carolina. Lapierre also oversaw the reconstruction of Carolina, but did little except extend the policies of the previous administration. This caused Lapierre to be seen as a lame duck president. At the same time, Carolina began developing a new national identity instead of the previous state identity. As Carolinians became more nationalistic, the states rights attitude began to fade removing much of the obstacles toward building a stronger federal government.

1873 painting of the delegates to the Macon Conference by Marie-Madeleine Vilatte

In 1873, Congress appointed a committee to meet and discuss potential modifications to the Confederate States Constitution in order to solve the issues currently facing the country. On August 18, the committee along with delegates from each of the states met at Mercer University in Macon, Georgia in order to put forth potential amendments to the constitution. The Macon Conference concluded on September 9, with three potential amendments to the constitution. One amendment allowed for Congress to pass tariffs, a second amendment defined federal and state powers, and a third amendment would limit the presidential term to two-four year terms. The first two amendments were ratified in 1875 while the third took considerable debate and was ratified in 1878 and went into effect in 1880. In 1874, Congress also voted to change the flag of Carolina to one that symbolized Carolinian culture rather than the Southern War and battle flag.

Transition to a Modern Nation

In 1880, Jacques Longurue was elected President of Carolina as a Democrat. Longurue was able to popularize the term Carolina, saying in a speech "We call ourselves Carolinians, so we should call this land Carolina". Although the government made no attempts to change the official name of Carolina, the public quickly popularized the phrase. Domestically, Longurue split from most Democrats in his vision for a New Carolina. While Carolina was among the top 10 industrialized countries in 1880, it still was in desperate need of further industrialization. Therefore, Longurue's plan began emphasizing free market trade principles, immigration, and an emphasis on industrialization. In 1884, he was elected for a second term and championed better relations between Carolina and the United States. In 1885, Longurue met with President Grover Cleveland in Washington, with Cleveland visiting Charleston later in the year. The two met in Norfolk, Virginia in 1886 and agreed to a treaty of mutual economic and military assistance. The resulting Norfolk Pact, led to further economic integration between the countries and a military alliance which has remained unbroken.

Atlanta's Peachtree Street in 1907

Many of the Carolinian aristocrats who led to the Democratic Party disagreed with President Longurue's New Carolina vision. As a result, the party nominated Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II for the Presidency in 1888. Many of Longurue's followers split and formed the Whig Party puting up Augustin Gauterot for the Presidency. The Whig's provided a strong showing, especially in North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama, but Lamar was ultimately elected President in a landslide. However, during Lamar's term, economic growth and immigration stagnated and led to a declining economy. The Whig's took advantage of the situation and made major gains in the 1890 midterm elections. However, it soon became apparent that Carolina's practice of slavery was the main reason for the declining growth. Manumission bills appeared in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Tennessee although they all failed.

The 1892, election proved disastrous for the Democratic Party, with Whig candidate Kevin Gauterot winning the presidency and the Whig Party taking control of Congress and the majority of state legislatures. In 1893, both North Carolina and Tennessee passed manumission bills. Both states saw an economic boost and by 1894, Georgia, Louisiana, and Florida had done the same. The country saw an overall economic boost under the Whig Party, which led to the Alabama and South Carolina legislatures being Whig controlled by 1894. Both states passed orders of manumission in 1895. Mississippi became the last vestige of slavery and being a Democratic Party stronghold it remained firmly in support of slavery. However, a declining economy, a runaway slave problem, and several slave rebellions led to the end of slavery in 1898.

Most freed slaves were considered as residents and not citizens, denying them the right to vote among other things. North Carolina and Tennessee both adopted clauses which made freed slaves citizens but denied them the right to vote. However, the Supreme Court case Atwood v. South Carolina ruled that former slaves were citizens and therefore were entitled to rights listed within the constitution including equal treatment under the law. However, black codes still were enacted in several states which severely limited the rights of African-Carolinians and compelled them to work in low-income labor. Other states passed segregation laws which did not restrict the rights of blacks but forced them to use separate facilities than whites. As a result, many African-Carolinians began to flee to the United States beginning the Great Migration.

Industrial output in Carolina tripled between 1895 and 1910 as the New Whig Party put in place pro-industry policies in the country. This was done without much socialist action in Carolina which set it apart from other industrialized countries. Toward the latter part of the century, a rise in populism within the rural community became prominent. These populists formed the Radical Liberal Party, the first major left-wing party in Carolina. It was mainly made up of angry farmers who aimed to lead an crusade of agrarianism against elites, cities, banks, railroads, and gold. The party was able to gain a majority in the North Carolina Legislature in 1898, however never gained a majority in Congress.

In February of 1898, the USS Maine sunk in Havana Harbor causing outcry in the United States against Spain. The United States and to some degree Carolina was eager for a war with Spain, however the United States sought to involve Carolina in such a war to use their Gulf of Mexico and Florida naval bases. Following political pressure from the United States Democratic Party, U.S. President McKinley invoked the Norfolk Agreement on April 3, and with Carolina declaring war on Spain on April 19, and the United States declaring war on April 21. The United States and Carolina were able to successfully use Carolinian bases to launch assaults on Cuba and Puerto Rico. Following the war, the United States ceded potential control over Cuba to Carolina due to the Platt Amendment. Spain ceded Cuba to Carolina for $20 million and the United States gained a permanent lease of a naval station at Guantanamo Bay as a concession from Carolina. Immediately following the war, Carolina fought a Cuban insurgency until 1902 with limited support from the United States.

The Democratic Party gained back some power in the first decade of the 20th century, however the Whig's continued to remain prominent. The country made substantial improvements to education, infrastructure, and industry during the time, including education for blacks in some states. European immigration increased which helped to fuel industrialization in the country. By 1910, the country was the seventh wealthiest country in the world, ahead of Argentina but behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium.

World War I, 1920's, Great Depression, and World War II

Members of Carolina's First "Negro Legion" posing during World War 1

Carolina supported the Entente in World War I early in the war, mainly by exporting food, cotton, and industrial products to the United Kingdom and France. However, the country entered into World War I in February of 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated Carolinian neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign. Unlike the United States, Carolina entered as a formal ally of the United Kingdom and France which had been historic allies of Carolina since the Southern War. Carolina sent army, navy, and air force division to fight in the war, and was able to mobilize 850,000 troops. The country suffered roughly 70,000 casualties by the end of the war in 1918. President Lucas Bosch took up a leading role at the Paris Peace Conference, advocating for self-determination in Germany, Eastern Europe, as well as the League of Nations. Bosch also advocated for a full intervention in Russia which never fully materialized.

Following the war, the Democratic Party resurged after winning the war for Carolina. Democratic Candidate Wade Hampton V was elected president in 1924. Hampton opened up Carolina to more free trade which benefited the economy in the short-term. However, his term was marred by the boll weevil which destroyed crops across Carolina and brought down the economy. At the same time, social unrest by blacks against black codes began shortly after Hamptons inauguration. A general-strike was conducted by African-Carolinians in hopes to eliminate black codes and gain voting rights. As unrest continued to get worse, Hampton proposed banning black codes, replacing it with segregation. A bill proposing this passed both the House and Senate and was put into law in 1925. While most blacks thought they may achieve voting rights from the bill, fear that blacks held marxist ideologies prevented that from occuring.

A school in Alabama during the Great Depression.

The 1928 elections were hotly contested but New Whig nominee Lionel Benoit won the presidency and a New Whig Congress was ushered in. The relative economic prosperity of the time ended with the Stock Market Crash in 1929, with Benoit taking most of the blame for the crash. The 1932 election saw four major political parties moving toward the Presidency. Populist movements drove the Radical Liberal party to the Far-left, and the new Palmetto Party offered a Carolinian version of fascism. In a surprise election, a new center-left party named the Progressive Party won the election against a nearly collapsed New Whig Party and a weakened Democratic Party. Adde's reforms mimicked those of Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States and the two began to cooperate extensively after 1933. The Better Plan package by Adde included the establishment of a social security system and the expansion of electricity in rural Carolina. Women gained the right to vote in 1934 by constitutional amendment. Adde resigned after one term due to failing health. In the 1936 election, Huey Long was elected President in a landslide victory against the Democratic and Progressive candidates. This was mainly due to his Share the Wealth program which mobilized poor white voters. However, the Radical Liberals did not secure a majority in Congress and none of his legislation was able to pass. Long attempted to use directorial measures to pass his bills, which led to the beginning of the impeachment process. However, Long was assassinated in 1938 before he could be indicted. His Vice-President William Arceneaux assumed the Presidency but did little to help Carolina. The Radical Liberal Party lost major support after Long's presidency and most voters began voting for the Progressive Party. In 1940, Democratic Candidate James F. Byrne was elected President.

Carolinian troops in armoured cars shortly after the liberation of Syt, Freiga.

While Byrne was staunchly anti-German and anti-Japanese, during the early stages of World War II, Carolina attempted to remain neutral in the conflict. However, it operated a program similar to the Lend-Lease Program supplying food to allied nations. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States invoked the Norfolk Pact and Carolina declared war on December 14. Carolina was able to send its Caribbean fleet from Cuba to Pearl Harbor to assist the United States in the Pacific war effort. Carolina played a considerable role in the Battle of Midway and helped to push south alongside Australian forces to liberate the Dutch East Indies and French Indochina. Carolina also played a major role in European Front, especially in Northern Europe leading campaigns in Freiga, the Netherlands, Norway, and Denmark. Carolina pushed southeast through the Netherlands and Belgium to meet with other allied forces heading east from France. During the war, Carolina was occasionally referred as fifth member of the "Four Policemen" of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with United States, Britain, the Soviet Union and China. While Carolina played a leading role at the Bretton Woods Conference, the country was not invited to the Yalta Conference and was not given a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.

Cold War and Civil Rights Era

Following the conclusion of World War II, the United States and Soviet Union jockeyed for power. Carolina was firmly within the United States sphere as a founding member of United Nations, NATO, OECD, and World Trade Organization. Carolina became a leader in the western-bloc, alongside the United States, France, and the United Kingdom.

The 1948 election saw the creation of the Dixiecrat Party led by Strom Thrumond. Many Dixiecrats were former Democrats who became worried that the Democratic leadership, which now contained many former Whigs sought to end segregation in the near-future. The party embraced right-wing populism and was able to win Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina to win the election. While against integration, lives for blacks actually got better under Thurmond's administration. Congress passed strong anti-lynching and anti-violence laws, making it a hate-crime to perform such activities. Thurmond also strongly supported the Carolinian military and aimed for Carolina to become a Great Power. Thurmond is accredited to growing Carolina's worldwide presence and beginning the country's nuclear program. Thurmond also entered Carolina into the Korean War in 1950, something that boosted his popularity.

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door: Governor George Wallace attempts to block the enrollment of black students at the University of Alabama.

Carolina continued under Democratic leadership following the end of Thurmond's second term in 1956 and George Wallace's election in 1968. The Democratic and Dixecrat Parties rivaled each other throughout the time period, as the Progressive's embracing of the civil rights movement led to their declining support in many states. Carolina entered into the Vietnam War in 1955 alongside the United States. However, Carolina continued to exercise the most influence in Latin America. In response to a popular movement which aimed for the independence of Cuba, Carolina allowed a referendum to decide the status of the country. In 1952, the country narrowly voted in favor of independence. The country achieved independence later that year under Juan Batista.

During this time period, the Carolinian Civil Rights Movement began, primarily under the leadership of Martin Luther King Jr.. The movement fought for the end of segregation along with voting rights for African-Carolinians. Similar, to the same movement in the United States, it used non-violent tactics to achieve their goals.

While Carolina had tolerated Fidel Castro's socialist regime in Cuba, that changed in 1962, when Soviet Missile sites were spotted in Cuba. During that time, Carolina cut off all diplomatic ties with Cuba, and led a naval blockade around the island with United States support. In response Cuba threatened to target Miami, Atlanta and Charleston should Carolina not back down. Castro also encouraged civil rights protesters to take up arms against Carolina in order to bring about a new socialist regime. Carolina ordered the acceleration of its nuclear missile program and the military was concentrated in Southern Florida and Gulf Coast. The Soviet's turned away short of the Carolinian-American blockade ending the crisis. In response, a new secure hotline was also set up between Charleston, Washington, and Moscow to increase communication.

At home, Carolina experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. The Warsiene Islands became a state in 1963, making it the second to last state to be admitted to Carolina.

Dixiecrat George Wallace was elected President in 1968 on a strong anti-integration stance. His strong actions as Governor of Alabama against protesters had provoked some controversy. However, the civil rights movement greatly accelerated during his leadership, especially after the assassination of Martin Luther King. John Lewis and Coretta Scott King assumed leadership of the movement. Public opinion began to turn in favor of the protesters after the Meridian Incident where Wallace nationalized the national guard to brutally stop protesters in Meridian, Mississippi. The Supreme Court in Thieobleu v. Confederate States ruled that the protesters had the right to protest, and Wallace could not break up the protests. The Carolinian economy stagnated during Wallace's second term, with some countries, especially African ones requesting UN sanctions against Carolina. The United States placed considerable pressure on Wallace to end segregation but Wallace refused. Florida, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia all passed legislation to begin integration and give African-Carolinians the right to vote. Democratic Candidate Jimmy Carter won the 1976 elections, and quickly lobbied Congress to pass Civil Rights legislation. The 1978 elections were the first elections where the majority of African-Carolinians could vote in, with the Progressive and Democratic Parties gaining widespread support and the Dixiecrats becoming a minor political party.

Contemporary History

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Carolina was able to enjoy excellent relations with Eastern European countries, helping to aid their economies. The country saw a period of recession from 1989 to 1992 with the decline of the manufacturing industry, but a period of growth from 1992 to 1994 aided by the growing high-tech industry. The country entered into the Gulf War in 1991 to protect the countries' oil interests and to prevent another oil shortage.

Beginning in 1994, Carolina entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the Carolina, Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. by January 1, 2008. Trade among the four partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.

The Olympic flag waves at the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta

Carolina hosted the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, which were meant to show the progression of Carolina from a rural society to a modern, global one.

Carolina entered into the War on Terror shortly after the United States, mainly due to the September 11 Attacks on the United States. Carolina declared war on Afghanistan on October 14, 2001 and entered into the Iraq War in 2003.

Carolina entered into the Great Recession in January of 2008. The recession was the second worst in the history of Carolina, only preceded by the Great Depression. During the time, the unemployment rate in Carolina skyrocketed to 15.5%. The recession was declared to be over in March of 2010. The recovery from the recession has been supported by the high-tech industry sector and clean manufacturing. In 2016, Carolina elected Nikki Haley as president, making her the first woman and first Indian-Carolinian President. Haley's presidency has overseen Carolina's entry into the Alliance of Independent Nations and Carolina's stronger global presence.

Geography

Bottomland hardwood swamp near Ashland, Mississippi
Amalie, Warsiene Islands, with Amalie Bay in the distance.

Carolina is 580,454 square miles making it the 19th largest country in the world for total area. Carolina is located in the southeastern area of Central North America, south and east of the United States and north of Cuba. The majority of Carolina is part of the humid subtropical climate zone, identified in the Köppen Climate types. However sections of the Appalachian Mountains in western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia and Qualla, are a part of the oceanic climate. Most of South Florida and the Warsiene Islands are part of either the Savannah or Monsoon Tropical Climates.

The area along the Atlantic Seaboard is mostly flat, and coastal areas are home to many inland marshes. Heading west toward Piedmont, the flat landscape gives away to the rolling hills and deciduous forests of the area. The Appalachian Mountains provide a divide between western and eastern Carolina. The Appalachian region is characterized by a cooler climate a moderate sized mountains. Continuing west, the Great Valley of eastern Tennessee brings back the rolling hills found in the Piedmont Region. The land continues to be very similar to that of the Piedmont throughout Tennessee. The western border of Carolina is defined the Mississippi River, a major north-south river that flows through the United States and partially through Carolina. The river is navigable and is was historically used to transport goods from Memphis south to New Orleans or the western Gulf port cities.

Southern Carolina and the Florida's typically are very flat, with the Appalachian Mountains turning to rolling hills in southwestern Georgia and northwestern Alabama. In Florida, the land is nearly completely flat with many swamps and inland lakes characterizing the area. Several inland bays such as Tampa Bay and Charlotte's Harbor are found along the Floridian coastlines.

The Warsiene Islands are a group of mostly flat islands found off the southwestern coast of South Florida. The islands share a similar landscape to that of the Florida Keys and nearby Cuba, with a long sandy coastline and a flat interior. The Warsiene Islands were not volcanic, rather it is believed that they were at one point part of Florida during the ice age when the Floridian Peninsula extended several hundred miles from where it is today.

Wildlife

The ecology of Carolina is very diverse, partially due to the ranging climates of the nation. Florida, South Florida, and the Warsiene Islands are home to the countries more tropical plants and animals. The endangered American Crocodile can be found only along the tip of South Florida and in the Warsiene Islands. The much more populous American Alligator can be found along the southern and eastern coasts, and are often associated with Floridian wildlife. Deer are very populous in central and northern Carolina, and their abundance leads to a popular deer hunting season in Carolina. However they can cause problems, especially with motor vehicles. Carolina is also home to animals such as the Floridan Panther a critically endangered species native to the Everglades. The Florida Panther is the national mammal, voted in 2003 replacing the Black Bear. The Bald Eagle, which is a breeding resident of eastern Carolina, is a national symbol of Carolina as well as being the national bird.

Carolina's fauna is equally as diverse ranging from tropical plants in the southern portion of the nation, to more deciduous plants in the northern half. Palm Trees are abundant and found along the Carolinian coastline and throughout the Florida's. Pine Trees are abundant throughout Carolina, and the Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) is the national tree of Carolina. The rare Venus flytrap is only native to North Carolina and South Carolina.

Carolina only has 7 National Parks, 1 in North Carolina, 1 in South Carolina, 1 in Tennessee, 2 in the Warsiene Islands, and 3 in South Florida. The largest National Park is Everglades National Park in South Florida. There are many state parks that are found throughout Carolina, which are owned and maintained by the individual states and not the national government.

Demographics

Population

The Carolinian Department of the Census estimates that in 2016 the population of Carolina was 60,304,593 people. That is up from 60,101,753 in 2010. Carolina and the United States are the only major industrialized nations, where large population growth is expected. Carolina is expected to be the 24th most populous country in the world, nearly in line with the population with Italy. By 2020, Carolina is expected to grow to 61,500,000 which could mean that it could surpass Italy in the current decade. The birthrate of Carolina was not recorded until the 1910 Census when women were having 4.02 children. That has since decreased 1.89 children in 2010. Foreign Born population and immigration has allowed Carolina's population to continue to increase through recent years. Carolina saw the largest number of immigrants in 2015 when 406,837 immigrant applications were approved. Many of these came from Western Europe, Asia, and Latin America. American, Canadian, Friegan, French, and UK citizens do not need a visa to move or visit Carolina. Those same citizens along with Cuban citizens are also eligible for automatic citizenship. Carolina has taken in many Cuban refugees, many of which have fled by boat and landed in either South Florida or the Warsiene Islands. Cuban Immigrants are considered refugees because of the continuing Cuban Embargo. Carolina accepts immigrants from most of the world, except for "blacklisted countries". However, Carolina's immigration system is rigorous, designed to only allow the best immigrants in. Carolina has also withdrawn from recent Middle Eastern refugee resettlement despite outcries from refugees to have Carolina open it's doors to resettlement.

Largest metropolitan areas in Carolina by population (2016 Estimate)
Name State Population Name State Population
Miami
Miami

Atlanta
Atlanta

Tampa
Tampa

Charlotte
Charlotte

Miami Florida 6,066,387 Birmingham Alabama 1,147,417
Atlanta Georgia 5,789,700 Greenville South Carolina 884,975
Tampa–St. Petersburg Florida 3,032,171 Knoxville Tennessee 868,546
Charlotte North Carolina 2,474,314 Baton Rouge Louisiana 835,175
Orlando Florida 2,441,257 Columbia South Carolina 835,175
Nashville Tennessee 1,865,298 Sarasota Florida 788,457
Jacksonville Florida 1,865,298 Charleston Carolina Capital District/South Carolina 761,155
Memphis Tennessee 1,342,842 Greensboro North Carolina 756,139
Raleigh North Carolina 1,302,946 Fort Myers Florida 722,336
New Orleans Louisiana 1,268,883 Lakeland Florida 666,149
A large portion of Carolina's populations lives along the east coast and the "eastern states" of Florida, Georgia, Georgje, North Carolina, South Carolina and South Florida. The most populous state in Carolina is often disputed between North Carolina and South Florida, as each state has similar populations. The Florida's have the highest population density of Carolina, and 6 of the top 20 largest metro areas are in the Florida's. Miami, the countries largest metro area is found in South Florida.

Education

According to a 2012 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Carolina is the among the most educated countries in the world;[225] the country has a high number of adults having tertiary education, with 41 percent of Carolinian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree.[225] [226] Carolina invests fairly large amount of it's budget toward education. The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than 16 000 USD per student).[227] As of 2014, 79 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent. Carolina is considered not allowing high school kids to drop out at 16, requiring them to complete their high school education. President Nikki Haley has expressed support for this bill dubbed the Complete Package Act.

Ethnicity

According to the 2010 Census, the largest group of Carolinian self-identified as White (69.1%). That was followed by African Carolinian (22.1%), Asian (2.3%). Native Americans comprised 1.2% of the population. 8.4% identified as Hispanic or of Hispanic origin.

Language

A variety of languages are spoken by Carolinian's, however the nations main three mother tongues, Atlantsiike (derived from West Frisian), English, and French are the first language of around 91% of Carolinian's. Cherokee is not a national language, however is considered a mother-tongue in Carolina, used officially by Qualla. The largest, non-mother-tongue of Carolina is Spanish, which comprises another 6% of Carolinian first languages. German, Swedish, Frisian, Chinese (mainly Mandarin), and Portuguese are common first languages among the other 2% of Carolinian's. Most of these people are immigrants to Carolina, however Swedish and German pockets and towns do exist in North Carolina and Georgia.

Atlantsiike is the primary language of central and eastern Carolina, primarily spoken in Florida, Georgia, Georgje, and South Carolina. Atlantsiike is different from most languages spoken in Carolina, in that it was derived from West Frisian, however through diffusion with English and French, became it's own language. Today almost all of the original "Frisian Speaking Areas" defined in 1820 have become part of the Atlantsiike speaking area. South Carolina has seen the largest growth in Atlantsiike, with a nearly 43% increase in native speakers between 1900 and 2010. Atlantsiike is taught in all Carolinian Primary and Secondary Schools, and all Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an Atlantsiike speaking student.

English is the primary language of northern Carolina. It is the only official language of North Carolina but is also an official language in Georgia, South Florida, and Tennessee. Most public documents throughout Carolina are written in English along with Atlantsiike and French. The English language in North Carolina has attracted many American and Canadian immigrants throughout the past 50 years, who have come to Carolina looking for a job in the growing economy. English is taught in all Carolinian Primary and Secondary Schools, and all Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an English speaking student.

French, or Cajun is the official language of most of western Carolina. Cajun French or French is an official language in Alabama, Mississippi, and West Tennessee, however is recognized as a "primary minority language" in Georgia, and Tennessee. French was originally brought to Carolina by the French colonization of western Carolina, known as the French Colony of Bilox. Overtime the French language has evolved, primarily through diffusion with Atlantsiike/West Frisian. French is taught in all Carolinian Primary and Secondary Schools, and all Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an French speaking student.

Cherokee is not recognized as a national language of Carolina, due to the small size of the area it is spoke in, however if considered a mother-tongue in Carolina. Cherokee is nearly exclusively used in the state of Qualla, and is found throughout the state. The Cherokee language of Carolina is considered to be more original than the version in Oklahoma, often considered American Cherokee. That is because the Cherokee of North Carolina have been confined to their current state for over two centuries, while most of the American Cherokee have picked up either French or English influences from their move in the 1820's. Cherokee is taught as a second language in some high-level high schools, however is not commonly found. All Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an Cherokee speaking student.

Spanish is considered a common language in Carolina, however is not considered an official language or a mother-tongue. Spanish has been present in Carolina since the Spanish takeover of the Warsiene Islands in 1689. More recently, Spanish is being brought to Carolina from Cuban refugees and Latin American immigrants. Most primary and secondary schools teach Spanish as a second language, however native Spanish speakers are expected to learn the native tongue of their region. Therefore, colleges and universities do not have to provide accommodations for Spanish speaking students.

Frisian, German, Swedish and Chinese are all found in Carolina, however only make up a very small percentage the population. In the 2012 National Education Standards of Carolina, learning another native Carolinian tongue (Atlantsiike, English, French) other than their own, is a requirement to receive a high school diploma or GED.

Religion

The Carolinian Constitution guarantees the free practice of religion, and says that the practice of religion can not be obstructed by the government. However the Gearkomste can and has passed a bill to make Christianity the official religion of Carolina. This is highly debated in Carolina with some advocating for Carolina to have no official religion. Carolina is a deeply Christian nation, with nearly 87% of the population identifying as Christians. Of that 87%, 73% identify as protestant and 27% identify as Catholic or another branch of Christianity. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism, and the Southern Baptist Convention is the largest individual Protestant denomination. About 26% of Carolinian's identify as Evangelical Protestants, while 15% are Mainline and 7% belong to a traditionally Black church. Roman Catholicism in Carolina originates from Spanish and French colonization of the Americas, and later grew because of Irish, Italian, Polish, German and Hispanic immigration.

Most of Carolina is a part of the North American Bible Belt, which stretches from North Carolina to West Texas and south from Orlando to central Virginia.  Socially conservative Evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. South Florida is considered the major outlyer to this, which is seemingly less religious than the rest of Carolina.

Government and Politics

Carolina is a federal republic and is the fifth oldest surviving federation in the world. The government is highly based off of the government of the United States, with the constitution being modeled after its American counterpart. It is a representative democracy "in which in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". The Carolinian constitution serves as the country's supreme legal document, which devises a system of checks and balances between the three branches of the government.

In the Carolinian Federal system, citizens are usually subjected to three levels of government, federal, state, and local. The responsibilities of the local government are usually split between county/parish and municipal governments. In all state and local governments, positions are elected based on pl In Carolina, citizens are usually subjected to three levels of government, national, state, and local (either parish or city). In all cases executive and legislative officials in both the state and federal government are elected by plurality vote.

The Confederate States Capitol,
where Congress meets:
the Senate, left; the House, right
The Presidential Mansion, home and workplace of the Carolinian President

The federal government is composed of three branches:

The House of Representatives has 309 voting members each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are added and reapportioned every 10 years. Each district roughly amounts to 200,000 people. In the 2010 census, no states had the minimum amount of one representative, and Florida had the most representatives with 94 seats.

The Senate has 20 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms. One third of the Senate is open for reelection every two years. All nine states along with the Carolina Capital District have Senators. The President serves a six year term and may only serve in the office for one term. The President is not directly elected through popular vote, but rather by an indirect electoral college in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the Carolina Capital District. The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice of Carolina, has nine members, who serve for life.

The state governments are structured in a similar fashion. The Governor, which is the chief executive of each state is directly elected. Some state judges and cabinet members are appointed by the governor while others are elected by popular vote.

The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Section 9, Article 3 says that the Writ of Habeas Corpus must not be suspended unless in times of rebellion or during public danger. The constitution has been amended 14 times, with the second, third, fourth, and seventh, eight, and ninth forming the basis of Carolinian individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided.

Political Divisions

Carolina is a federal republic, made up of nine states and once federal district. The states are the principal administrative districts in the country. The states are further divided into counties, known as parishes in Louisiana and Mississippi. The Carolina Capital District is the federal district, containing the national capital, Savannah. The states and the Carolina Capital District choose the President of Carolina. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the Carolina Capital District has two (because of the 23rd Amendment).

Map showing the political divisions of Carolina.

Congressional districts are reapportioned every ten years, coinciding with the national census. On the national level, each representative district must have roughly 200,000 inhabitants, as per the 4th amendment. The total number of voting Representatives is 309. There are also two non-voting representatives from the Capital District.

Carolina recognizes tribal sovereignty to a certain extent. Tribes are subject to their own courts and legislature, however have to follow both federal and state level laws. A significant movement has pushed for reservations to become states, however the small size of the tribes has become problematic, as well as the large number of reservations outnumbering other states in the Senate. Most movements associate a separate state for the Cherokee in the Eastern Cherokee Indian Reserve named Qualla, and a Choctaw state formed from the Mississippi Choctaw Reservation.

Citizenship is granted at birth in all states and the Capital District.

Political Parties

Carolina has operated under a two party or three party system for most of its history. Most major third parties have risen from populist movements such as the Freedom Party, Prohibition Party and Dixiecrat Party. Throughout the 1920's and 30's the collapse of the New Whig Party led to a power vacuum which allowed a three and sometimes four party system to rise to power. Following the collapse of the Freedom Party and the presidency of Wilson Adde, the country returned to a two state system with the Progressive and a weakened Democratic Party. The debate over segregation led Strom Thurmond of South Carolina to create the States Rights Democratic Party, which has retained some popularity in Alabama and Mississippi as the Democratic Party moves to the center.

Nikki Haley
23rd President
since September 3, 2016
Marco Rubio
25th Vice President
since September 3, 2016

Within Carolinian political culture, the center-right Democratic Party is considered "conservative", the right-wing Dixiecrat Party is considered "right-wing" or "ultraconservative" and the center-left Progressive Party is considered "liberal". Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, and the Warsiene Islands are considered battleground states where the Progressive Party has a chance against the Democratic and Dixiecrat Parties, while Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina generally are right-wing states where Progressive's rarely win. The political climate influences the probability of success of the Progressive Party in Louisiana, North Alabama, and Tennessee.

Democrat Nikki Haley, the winner of the 2016 presidential election, is serving as the 23rd President of Carolina. Leadership in the Senate includes Democratic Vice President Marco Rubio, President Pro-Tempore Lindsey Graham, Majority Leader Richard Burr, and Minority Leader Bill Nelson. Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the House Marsha Blackburn, Majority Leader Steve Scalise and Minority Leader John Lewis.

Foreign Relations

Carolina has an established system of foreign relations, being a member of the United Nations, G20, and the OECD. Almost all nations have an embassy in Savanne, and many have consulates throughout the nation. Likewise nearly all nations host Carolinian diplomatic missions in their countries. Carolina does not currently any relations with Cuba, Iran, North Korea, or the Republic of China (although Carolina still maintains relations with Taiwan). The nation has also cut all diplomatic relations with the government of Syria and backs the rebels. Carolina retains relations with Chad, Central African Republic, Somalia, and Yemen however due to security concerns, has removed their embassy staff from the nation.

Carolina has a "Special Relationship" with Friega, and is very close with the United States, and Canada. Carolina also maintains close relations with Australia, New Zealand, Israel, Japan, South Korea and many European Union nations, mainly France, Germany the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the quadrilateral North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada, Mexico, and the United States. In 2008, the United States spent a net $12.7 billion on official development assistance. As a share of Carolina's large gross national income (GNI), however, the Carolinian contribution ranked last in a study among 23 donor states. Carolina is selective with it's refugee programs. It is a major source of Cuban "refugees" however has opted out of the international effort for Syrian refugees.

Taxes

Taxes in Carolina are levied at the federal, state and local government level. These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. Carolina's tax code went under major simplification in 2011 to cut-out loop holes in the code. The simplification has allowed Carolina to make it's first surpluses since 2004. Under the code the top 1% of the population pays roughly the same as they did in the previous code (about 35%). However middle and lower classes got a unforeseen tax break, with their income taxes lowering to just 10%. Those who live below the poverty line do not pay taxes. The lower income taxes are supplemented with a national 10% sales tax. Business taxes are unconceivably low in Carolina, with high taxes on industrial and other dirty industries. Several important industries such as the automotive industry get very high taxes. Import taxes in Carolina are high in Carolina, except for NAFTA members and other countries with free-trade agreements including Santa Catarina and some EU members. Before the new tax code, some companies would import goods to the United States and then to Carolina, however the new code ended this with point-of-export taxes.

Military

The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Offense. The Carolinian Department of Armed Forced administers the Army, Navy, and Air Force of Carolina. The Coast Guard is run by the Carolinian Navy. Carolina has approximately 450,000 troops on active duty, but has around 1.1 million in reserves. Military service in Carolina is voluntary, with conscription being abolished in 1988. Carolina had previously used the draft in World War 1 and World War 2. Carolina's military is able to be deployed rapidly, with the many air forces bases, and 4 aircraft carriers. The military operates about 204 bases both domestically and internationally. The military budget of Carolina was around $103 Billion CGU (1 CGU=1.03 USD), and was about 4.7% of the national GDP. Proportionally Carolina spends about the same amount on the military as the United States. Carolina has increased it's global military presence throughout the latter half of the 20th century and the 21st century, however is selective on which wars it participates in. Carolina typically follows the United States into a war, as evident in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars.

Infrastructure

Road Transportation

A modern Interstate in downtown Atlanta, GA

Transportation in Carolina is dominated by automobiles, which operate on one of the world's largest highway networks. The world's third largest car market, Carolina has 790 vehicles per 1,000 people making Carolina the highest per capita vehicle ownership rate in the world. Around 50% of these vehicles are vans, SUV's, or trucks.

Carolina's road network is one of the most extensive in the world, and comprises of the Interstate Highway System, National Highway System, and State and Local Highways. Generally even numbered routes are routed east-west and odd numbered routes are routed north-south however some routes do not follow this rule. The Interstate Highway System is a joint-system with the United States, which has created a high-speed limited access freeway system throughout Carolina. Carolina is still rapidly expanding it's Interstate highway program, in order to keep up with it's rapidly expanding population. the National Highway system was created in 1931 during the Great Depression, and is usually associated with the US Highway System in which it's numbers are linked up with. However, unlike the Interstate Highway System, the National Highway System has developed within Carolina, and only has recently been linked up with the United States. In 1973 a redo of National Highway numbers was made to correspond to the routes and number system of the United States. State highway networks were created individually by each state, and are built and maintained by their respective state. Thus, each system has developed on it's own, however many states have collaborated to keep numbers the same across borders.

Rail Transportation

Rail Transportation is relatively new in Carolina and is only recently growing in ridership due to the creation of GoSpoar. Intercity rail generally does not work very well in Carolina because of the low population density throughout much of the interior of the country. However Carolina collaborated with SBB of Mikenstein and FS of Friega and has since created a new rail system called GoSpoar. Since then, rail ridership is up 64% in Q2 of the 2017. Carolina also has several other private railroad systems that operate inter-city rail transportation, among them are Carolina SunSpeed Rail and All Aboard Florida. Amtrak offers several services within Carolina that link up to the United States.

CSX Transportation is the largest freight railroad transporter within Carolina and owns approximately 60% of all freight rail tracks within Carolina. However Memphis Eastern, and Riveria System have gained significant market coverage over CSX. CN, Norfolk Southern and BNSF also have railroad tracks that operate within Carolina.

Air Transportation

The civil airline industry of Carolina is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1966. The Treaty of Kansas City in 1982 allowed fifth freedom rights to Carolinian and US airlines to fly within the other's country, after airlines such as Pan American World Airways and Delta Air Lines worked their way around international laws. However, most airports within Carolina remain publicly owned, and operated by their respective municipality. The second largest airline in the world, Delta Air Lines is Carolinian based. Of the world's 50 busiest airports, four are located in Carolina, including Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, which is the largest airport in the world.