Carolina

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This is an article related to the United Carolinian Confederation Carolina


United Carolinian Confederation
Ferienigde Karolinianen Konfederaasje
Confédération Carolinienne Unifiée
Motto: Felicitatem in Deo est
(Latin: In God Comes Prosperity)
Anthem: Carolina!
Location of Carolina (dark green)In North America (grey)In the Alliance of Independent Nations (navy)
Location of Carolina (dark green)
In North America (grey)
In the Alliance of Independent Nations (navy)
Domestic Map of Carolina with States and Major Cities Shown
CapitalSavannah
46°13′N 123°34′W / 46.217°N 123.567°W / 46.217; -123.567
Official language(s) English, French
Recognised national languages Atlantsiike
Demonym Carolinian
Government Federal presidential
constitutional republic
 -  President Nikki Haley (D)
 -  Vice-President Marco Rubio (D)
 -  Speaker of the House Marsha Blackburn (D)
Legislature Congress
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
 -  Sovereign Nation Proclamation August 8, 1863 
 -  Constitution Written March 20, 1876 
 -  Declared Independence November 8, 1876 
 -  Independence Granted April 15, 1877 
 -  Current Constitution June 11, 1884 
Area
 -  Total 1,046,882.85 km2 
404,203.73 sq mi 
Population
 -  2016 estimate 65,627,958 
 -  Density 62.69/km2 
162.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 -  Total $3.08 Trillion (4th in AIN)
 -  Per capita $47,016 (4th in AIN)
HDI (2016) 0.909 (very high) (10th in AIN)
Currency Carolinian Dollar ($) (CGU)
Time zone (UTC-5 to -6)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC-4 to -5)
Date formats mm/dd/yyyy
Drives on the right
Simlympic code UCC
Internet TLD .uc
Calling code +1

The United Carolinian Confederation (UCC), commonly referred to as Carolina or the United Confederation, is a federal republic composed of nine states, and a federal district. Carolina is in central North America south of the United States and north of Cuba, with the state of Warsiene comprising an archipelago in the northwestern Caribbean. The geography and climate are also diverse, and the country is home to a wide variety of wildlife.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago, with European colonization beginning in the 16th century. France established a Hugenot Colony at Charlesfort (now Charleston) in 1562 which remains the oldest permanently settled site in Carolina. After the Huguenot Wars, England took possession of most of northern and eastern Carolina in the modern-day states of Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Spain established a permanent settlement at St. Augustine which anchored their Florida colony, and Friega established settlements in the Warsiene Islands. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, British Carolina retained its cultural ties to France and developed a distinct culture from the northern colonies. Numerous disputes between the colonies and Great Britain following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution and the Carolinian states became a part of the newly formed United States. Growing worry and resentment over northern encroachment on Carolinian lifestyles led all nine states joining the Confederate States of America in the Civil War.

Lincoln’s Sovereign Nation Proclamation promised independence to Carolinian-majority states which renounced allegiance to the CSA and joined the Union. Carolina’s independence process began in 1875 after military and radical reconstruction. Radical Republicans composed the constitution. On April 15, 1877 Carolina was given independence peacefully. A constitutional convention was held in June of 1884 in Chattanooga which rewrote the constitution and disenfranchised many ethnic minorities in Carolina. Popular movements in the 1920's led to some rights being given to African-Carolinians and other minorities. The country's entry into World War II affirmed its role as a world power, and created an economic miracle in the country. During the 1960's and 1970's Carolina integrated and outlawed discrimination within the country. During the Cold War, Carolina stood firmly on the side of the United States, and developed a nuclear missile program to deter Cuba and other nearby threats.

Carolina is a highly developed country. It ranks highly in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, and productivity per person. While the Carolina economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services, the manufacturing sector has seen recent growth, primarily in automobile and aerospace manufacturing.

Etymology

Carolina, derives from both French origin. The original use of the name was in 1564 when France built a fort in Florida named Fort Caroline, which is translated to Carolina in English or Karolina in Frisian languages.

History

Indigenous and European contact

Etowah Indian Mounds, one of the large chiefdom in the Mississippian Culture located in modern day Georgia

The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival. Some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies. After the Spanish conquistadors made the first contacts, the native population declined for various reasons, primarily from diseases such as smallpox and measles. Violence was not a significant factor in the overall decline among Native Americans, though conflict among themselves and with Europeans affected specific tribes and various colonial settlements.

In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares. Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.

Settlements

Founding of Fort Caroline in French Florida

The first attempts to colonize modern-day Carolina were by the Spanish in 1521. Ponce de León and 200 other men sailed from Cuba to set up a colony in southwestern Florida, most likely near Charlotte Harbor. However due to attacks by the nearby Calusa tribe, the men had to return in July, 1521.

In 1526 de Ayllón led an expedition of some 600 people to the South Carolina coast. After scouting possible locations as far south as Ponce de León Inlet in Florida, the settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape was established in the vicinity of Sapelo SoundGeorgje. Disease, hunger, cold and Indian attacks led to San Miguel being abandoned after only two months. About 150 survivors returned to Spanish settlements.

In 1562, Charles IX, under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny sent Jean Ribault and a group of Huguenot settlers in an attempt to colonize the Atlantic coast and found a colony on a territory which will take the name of the French Florida. They discovered the probe and Port Royal Island, which is now called by Parris Island in South Carolina, on which he built a fort named Charlesfort (present-day Charleston). The fort was later moved further to the north, on the site of present-day Charleston, South Carolina.

A second colony was established near the mouth of the St. James River. While beginning peacefully at first, the Spanish opposed the Huguenot based colony for religious reason. The recently appointed Spanish Governor of Florida Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés was dispatched from Saint Augustine with the intent on destroying the French colony. The Spanish led an army through a hurricane and launched a surprise assault on the fort on September 20. Only around 50 men and women who were taken prisoner survived the assault.

The colony at Charlesfort quickly grew as a result of Huguenot immigration from France. The main focus of the colony was along the present-day coast of South Carolina, however claimed a northern border at the James River in Virginia. In 1630 the colony was officially called the Caroline Colony. By 1650, the colony was controlled land ranging from the Savannah River in the south to the Cape Fear River in the north. Tobacco was the main staple of the economy in the colony and plantations in the colony grew most of France's tobacco trade.

Early Colonial History

St. Augustine, Florida. The oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in Carolina. (est. 1565)

During the Huguenot Rebellions in France, Caroline saw a large influx in immigration as people fled persecution in France. Leaders of the rebellions fled to the frontier of the colony, near Augusta and Colomb. In 1626, France tried to extend laws against Huguenots to Carolina, as well as restrict immigration to the colony. Leaders met in Villeneuve to discuss the colony joining as a part of the Third Huguenot Rebellion, hoping to gain support from England. The leaders declared independence as the Huguenot Republic, whose government was meant to be an interim government until support from England could arrive. The republic never had much authority and the Huguenot Assembly only met once, however became a part of the Huguenot identity.

The Virginia Company initially sent a militia south to take Caroline from the French. However, resistance against the Virginians caused the militia to turn back before reaching Wilmington. The English invaded and captured Charlesfort in 1628 and also took the Cape Fear and Savannah River basins. With most of the colony under the control of the English, the French surrendered it at the Treaty of Ales. The name of the colony was anglicized to Carolina, and subsequently became the Province of Carolina.

The Charter for Carolina in 1629 gave control of the land between the 31st and 36th parallels to Sir Robert Heath who avidly wanted to continue Huguenot immigration to the colony. Under Heath, Huguenot immigration soared, furthering developing the colony. Most settlers were small farmers, however some industries developed in coastal towns. Cash crops included tobacco, rice and wheat. English and Scot-Irish settlers also immigrated to Carolina which caused some division between those not willing to adapt to Huguenot traditions and other settlers.

A large scale slave trade began, mostly done by English privateers. Due to less diseases and better working conditions, slaves in Carolina and other English colonies traditionally lived longer than those to the south. This led to a large increase in the number of slaves in Carolina. Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery and colonies passed acts for and against the practice. However, by 1700 slaves were beginning to replace indentured servants.

In 1710, the Province of Carolina was split into the Province of North Carolina and the Province of South Carolina. This was mainly due to the northern section growing significantly different from the southern half. Northern Carolina had become much more English speaking with around 30% of the population being of English or Scot-Irish descent. Transportation and communication was also difficult between the two colonies, and a seperate governor had administered the northern part since 1691.

With the British colonization of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established. All had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism. With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Huguenot immigration continued, which allowed French speaking population to stay the dominant ethnic group within the three Carolinian colonies. Huguenots became known as Carolinians in the early 1700's. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed. The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest in both religion and religious liberty.

During the Seven Years' War (in the Carolina and the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French. Unlike in the Carolinian colonies, the francophone population remained politically isolated from the other British colonies. The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.

American Revolution and Antebellum Years

The American Revolutionary War was the first successful war of independence by a colony, against its colonial power. The Carolinian colonies generally were more reluctant to join the American Revolution. This stemmed off fears of indian raids and slave uprisings during and after the war. Georgia became the most reluctant colony to join the American Revolution because of constant Indian raids which affected the territory. North and South Carolina sent delegated to both the First and Second Continental Congress, while Georgia only sent delegates to the second. Delegates from all three signed the Lee Resolution which officially declared independence, along with the Declaration of Independence.

Great Britain was forced to recognize the independence of the United States following their defeat at the Battle of Yorktown. Following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, American sovereignty was established east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes.

The Revolution provided a shock to slavery in Carolina. Thousands of slaves took advantage of wartime disruption to find their own freedom, catalyzed by the British Governor Dunmore of Virginia's promise of freedom for service. Many others were removed by Loyalist owners and became slaves elsewhere in the Empire. Between 1770 and 1790, there was a sharp decline in the percentage of blacks – from 61% percent to 44% in South Carolina and from 45% to 36% in Georgia.

Slaves on a South Carolina plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790)

Cotton became dominant in the Dixie region after 1800. Following the invention of the cotton gin, short staple cotton could be grown more widely. This led to an explosion of cotton cultivation, especially in the frontier uplands of Georgia, Alabama, as well as riverfront areas of the Mississippi Delta. Migrants poured into those areas in the early decades of the 19th century, which spread the Carolinian culture out west. In addition migrants from the northern parts of the US as well as other Americans who spoke English mixed with Carolinians in the west. The explosion of cotton created a large demand for slave labor, and the institution became vital to many parts of the Southern/Carolinian United States.

With the opening up of frontier lands after the government forced most Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi, there was a major migration of both whites and blacks to those territories. From the 1820s through the 1850s, more than one million enslaved Africans were transported to Dixie in forced migration, two-thirds of them by slave traders and the others by masters who moved there. Planters in states such as North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia sold slaves excess to their needs as they shifted from tobacco to mixed agriculture. Many enslaved families were broken up, as planters preferred mostly strong males for field work.

The issue regarding slavery led to the creation of of two distinct geographical groups in the United States, the north and the south. However, a third ethnic group centered around the Carolinian became more vocal as it saw encroachment on it's lifestyle by the north. Carolinians largely had their own identity within the United States, and were culturally and linguistically separate from English speaking "Americans". While most upper class Carolinians knew English, much of the lower class did not which created the divide. At the same time, slave owners tried to use this divide to claim that the federal government could not regulate slavery, as it vowed to protect the culture of the Carolinians.

Before the Civil War, the number of immigrants arriving at Southern ports began to increase, although the North continued to receive the most immigrants. Huguenots continued to immigrate to Carolina, where they adapted to the culture and became a part of Carolinian society. Numerous Irish immigrants settled in New Orleans, establishing a distinct ethnic enclave now known as the Irish Channel. Germans also went to New Orleans and its environs, resulting in a large area north of the city (along the Mississippi) becoming known as the German Coast.

By 1840, New Orleans was the wealthiest city in the country and the third largest in population. The success of the city was based on the growth of international trade associated with products being shipped to and from the interior of the country down the Mississippi River. New Orleans also had the largest slave market in the country, as traders brought slaves by ship and overland to sell to planters across the South. New Orleans along with Charleston became the western center of commerce for the Carolinian states in the Deep South. The city was a cosmopolitan port with a variety of jobs that attracted more immigrants than other areas of the South. Because of lack of investment, however, construction of railroads to span the region lagged behind the North. Most Carolinians relied most heavily on river traffic for getting their crops to market and for transportation.

Civil War

By 1856, the South had lost control of Congress, and was no longer able to silence calls for an end to slavery—which came mostly from the more populated, free states of the North. The Republican Party, founded in 1854, pledged to stop the spread of slavery beyond those states where it already existed. Carolinians responded negatively to repeated calls of slavery from northerners, many believing that the north was trying to undermine their social and economic system. Congress was also against the extension of slavery into western territories, which was protested by Carolinians, seeing it as a ploy to make sure the west stayed in the hands of English speaking Americans.

The bombardment of Fort Sumter which began the American Civil War.

After Abraham Lincoln was elected the first Republican president in 1860, South Carolina declared secession from the United States under the pretense that they had refused to protect Carolinians. Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, all with large majorities of Carolinians, seceded before February of 1861 and formed the Confederate States of America. Texas also seceded in attempt to preserve slavery in February and was admitted to the CSA. The United States government, both outgoing and incoming, refused to recognize the Confederacy, and when the new Confederate President Fernand Maisonnat ordered his troops to open fire on Fort Sumter in April 1861, there was an overwhelming demand, North and South, for war. Following the Battle of Fort Sumter, North Carolina and Tennessee, the last two Carolinian majority states seceded and joined the Confederacy. Virginia and Arkansas also seceded, hoping to preserve slavery.

Early in the war, the Union was able to take control of the border states of Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri before they were able to secede. The Confederacy won several early battles in the war, primarily in Virginia where the Union army tried to invade to capture the capital in Richmond. By 1862, the Union was able to control the Cumberland and Tennessee River Valleys, and was prepared to invade and capture New Orleans. The United States also had established a blockade around the Confederacy which had cut much of it's shipping. However, in early 1863 a French diplomatic team was dispatched with the intent of talking with the Confederate government regarding recognition. The French saw the largely French-descended Confederacy as trying to break from an oppressive Anglo-Saxon United States. At the same time the French believed the Confederacy would be sympathetic to French goals in Mexico. Following the defeat at Gettysburg and the Emancipation Proclamation, France became vocally interested in supporting the Confederacy, which also added to a resurgence in British interest in the same. In late 1863, a French envoy was dispatched to Richmond to discuss recognition with the Confederacy. When the Americans captured the ship, the French recognized the south and declared intent to mobilize their navy to quash the US blockade.

Following the French announcement, the US and France agreed that if the Carolinian majority states were given independence that France would no longer intervene. Lincoln then announced the Sovereign National Proclamation, saying that if the Carolinian majority states denounced their allegiance to the Confederacy and instructed their militias to fight with Union forces, that following the war they would be given independence. Louisiana, which was mostly under Union occupation at the time, was the first to fulfill the requirements. Tennessee and North Carolina followed. Following a reluctance in many Dixie states, Lincoln announced that the Carolinian states would be exempt from the Emancipation Proclamation should they take the offer, leading to every state agreeing by January of 1864. This led to a virtual collapse of the Confederacy, but mostly saved the economy within the Deep South from harm. Lincoln met with Governor's on February 14, 1864 outlining his plan for independence. Lincoln planned for the country to undergo a period of reconstruction for ten years, and then be granted independence.

Lincoln with several delegates at the Savannah Convention.

Lincoln and delegates appointed from the state legislatures of Carolinian states met in Savannah, Georgia under the protection of the US Navy. A provisional government was formed at the Savannah Convention which allowed the country to elect a Congress and President under the American model, however gave foreign affairs and the power to direct reconstruction to the United States. The constitution left slavery up to the states to decide, which protected against the US trying to outlaw it in the reconstruction period. The constitution was signed on March 15, 1864, with South Carolina becoming the first state to ratify it on March 27, 1864, establishing the United Carolinian Confederation.

The last two years of the Civil War was mainly fought in Virginia as well as sporadically in parts of Carolina. Some people continued to take up arms against both US and Carolinian forces, feeling the government of Carolina was only a US pawn. Following Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, the American Civil War ended. Guerilla warfare in Carolina continued for several extra months, however by 1866 the Carolinian Civil War had ended.

Reconstruction and Protectorate

Snap elections were held in 1864 where the Democratic Candidate Léopold Lapierre became the first President of Carolina. Lapierre won out against Jefferson Davis who also ran for reelection in the newly formed Carolina. Carolina began reconstruction under Lincoln, however most of the money used was to fight remaining guerilla rebels during the Carolinian Civil War. Following Lincoln's assassination, Radical Republicans took control of the U.S. Congress, most of which wanted an end to slavery in Carolina and to reintegrate the protectorate back into the union. Lapierre opposed this, saying that Congress could not back out of it's "peace agreement" with the Carolinian states. However, Congress tried multiple times in 1865 and 1866 to revoke the Sovereign Nation Proclamation and declare Carolina's independence null and void. These events led to the Carolina Crisis, where officials in Savannah contemplated declaring independence from the United States early, on the premise that the attempts voided the ten-year wait period. Brazil, France, Prussia, and the United Kingdom all voiced support for Carolina during the crisis. In July of 1866, Congress backed down and agreed to stop attempting to integrate Carolina.

However, the end of the crisis did not stop Congress from pressuring Carolinian states to end slavery. In August of 1866 the Reconstruction Act declared that any state, territory, or Federal Protectorate that did not agree to the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments would not receive reconstruction aid. This voided all Carolinian states from receiving aid, which in turn pushed Carolina's reliance on European countries supporting it. Lapierre was able to develop an economic growth plan called the Brunswick Strategy which advocated for development of infrastructure, industry, cotton farming, and agricultural farming along with emphasizing foreign investment. The Brunswick Strategy worked very well with Carolina, as the country was able to secure large amounts of foreign investment between 1867 and 1880. This helped to rapidly re-develop Carolina's infrastructure and economy following the Civil Wars.

In the early 1870's Carolina began to see a small but growing abolitionist movement, which among other things advocated for a gradual and compensated end to slavery in Carolina. The election in 1872 saw the rise of New Whig Party which began to challenge the Democratic Party. However, Democratic candidate Dexter Thompson won the election in 1872 on both independence and pro-slavery sentiments. On June 15, 1874 Carolina declared Independence from the United States. On August 3, Congress voted in favor to allow Carolina to leave the union, officially granting the country independence and ending the protectorate.

Early Republic and the End of Slavery

Atlanta's Peachtree Street in 1907

Democrats continued to strongly support the Brunswick Strategy which had brought infrastructure and industry to Carolina through both foreign investment and investment from Carolina's private sector. The plan is namely responsible for Carolina's strong economic growth in the twenty years following its creation which led to growth in industry. However, with a growth in industry two different types of elites were created in Carolina, an industrial bourgeoisie and the plantation elites, both with different ideas for Carolina.

The industrial bourgeoisie tended to want more protection and strong incentives for industry in Carolina, often at the expense of plationations owners and other farmers. Some advocated for the gradual end of slavery seeing it as incompatible for Carolina's future and also hoping to exploit the cheap labor force. The plantation class wanted more open markets, however was not opposed to Carolinian industry. Unlike the industrialists they advocated for slavery, seeing it as vital to their economy and a humanizing force for the slave. Because of the Democrat's open market plan, industrialists gravitated toward the New Whigs while the plantation class gravitated toward the Democrats.

The Democrats retained much of their control on Carolinian politics throughout the first three decades of its existence. However, in the 1890's the New Whigs were able to gain political traction in Congress. Neither party seriously considered abolishing slavery, although several members of the New Whigs secretly supported it's abolition.

The economy of Carolina went into recession in 1893 as a result of the Panic of 1893 in the United States. This caused a bank run in major Carolinian cities and ended the growth within the Carolinian economy. The run also caused Carolina to issue bonds to buy gold, the basis of the Carolinian Dollar which created instability. In the aftermath of the crisis the People's Party (Populists) arose, becoming the first major left-wing political party in Carolina. It was mainly made up of angry farmers who aimed to lead an crusade of agrarianism against elites, cities, banks, railroads, and gold. The situation also allowed the New Whigs to seriously discredit the Democrat's handling of the economy, which allowed them to gain the presidency in the 1896 presidential election.

Between 1896 and 1898 no party was able to achieve a majority or coalition in Congress leading to many fearful of a government collapse. This created yet another recession in 1897 as well as another bank run. In 1898, the Democrats and New Whigs formed a coalition against the Populists, which allowed the two right-wing parties to control Carolina's government. Democrats became the majority in Congress and secured the presidency in 1900. This led to the gradual downfall of the New Whigs, although several members formed the Progressive Party in 1911.

Throughout the first two decades of the twentieth century, the national conversation in Carolina focused on the issue of slavery. Both Tennessee and North Carolina had adopted systems of gradual emancipation which eliminated slavery by 1910. Foreign investment in Carolina had been on the decline due to the negative "backwards" perception of Carolina by many Europeans and Americans. The France, the United Kingdom, and the United States all warned Carolina that it needed to take steps to end slavery, however made no efforts to enforce the threats. Nevertheless, the Ethical Slavery Act was passed in 1908 which freed all slaves over the age of 50, prevented slave families from being torn apart and children younger than 15 from being sold at slave auctions.

Members of Carolina's First Negro Legion posing during World War 1

In January of 1917, Germany issued the intercepted Ludendorff Telegram which promised Carolina; Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Virginia and Cuba should it join the Central Powers. Following the interception, the United Kingdom placed enormous pressure on Carolina to join the allies, worried that a neutral Carolina would support the Central Powers. Carolina finally declared war on Germany in March of 1917 citing unrestricted submarine warfare. The largest development from the war became the Negro Legion which were separate battalions that allowed African-Carolinians to serve in the army. The army paid better than most sharecropping or industrial jobs which attracted freed African-Carolinians.

Freed slaves pose outside an Alabama farm following the signing of the Emancipation Act in 1930.

During the early and mid 1920's the boll weevil spread throughout much of Carolina causing devastation to cotton crops. Many farmers were forced to diversify their crops and as a result slavery became less practical. Some farmers freed their slaves hoping to relieve costs associated with feeding and housing them. Others tried selling their slaves to make money causing slave prices to collapse. The invention of the mechanical cotton picker in 1922 also lessened the need for slaves in Carolina. The growth of sharecropping in North Carolina and Tennessee also showed that the economic system was more viable than slavery. As a result, many farmers advocated for compensated emancipation at 1920 market prices, which would allow them to make significant money for freeing their slaves. Georgia was the first state to begin this process in 1923, with all slaves being freed by 1928. Florida and Louisiana began their processes in 1924 with slavery ending in 1930 and 1931 respectfully. South Carolina began it's process of freeing slaves in 1926 with all slaves being freed by 1931. While slavery remained legal in both Alabama and Mississippi, the onset of the Great Depression led to many farmers pushing their states for emancipation in order to gain cash. Alabama's Emancipation Act in 1930 freed all slaves immediately while compensating their owners. Mississippi did the same in 1931, effectively ending slavery in Carolina.

Depression and World War II

In 1932, Wilson Adde was elected president, promising sweeping reforms to end the depression in Carolina. As Governor of Georgia he had promoted the state's industrialization but left office in 1928 before the depression. Adde was able to established several new programs in Carolina, like the Banking Assurance Act, the TVA, and the Farmer's Protection Act. Adde also created a new social security system which has since been overhauled into a more modern and effective system. The Great Migration saw millions of African-Carolinian's move to the United States to try and find jobs and to escape intensified segergation in some southern and western states. This trend continued until the 1950's when segregation was banned in Carolina.

Carolinian Troops Landing in Freiga Proper during World War II

Carolina tried to stay neutral during World War II, but after the Nazi invasion of Freiga, decided that it should enter the war on the side of the allies. On September 15, 1940, the Gearkomste jointly passed the Declaration of War Against Germany and Italy. On December 10, 1941, Carolina declared war on Japan after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Carolinian troops worked in several theaters of the war, unlike in World War I. Carolinian troops were initially deployed to Africa where they worked through Morocco, Algeria, and Libya before turning north to take over Italy. Carolina was almost solely responsible for the liberation of Freiga and the Netherlands, and worked north with Canadian troops from the D-Day invasion, as well as fighting from the north after an invasion of Freiga Proper. Though Carolina lost around 300,000 soldiers in the war, it came out relatively undamaged with even greater economic and military influence.

Cold War and the End of Segregation

In 1948, Helmich Jager, became the only member of the Carolina Right-Wing Party to be elected president. The Governor of Mississippi and a Real estate Developer, he promised to keep Carolina's economic growth moving and accelerate it into the 1950's. However he was also an avid supporter of federalizing segregation, very similar to Apartheid in South Africa, without Bantustan's. After the Gearkomste refused to federalize segregation, Jager made several executive orders. This caused protests among African-Carolinians which were brutally put down by the military. Carolina rose to the world scale in a negative light, with the United States and several other countries encouraging Jager to reform his policies or step down. In the election of 1952, Thomas John, an African-Carolinian Businessman and Governor of Tennessee was elected with almost a 95% turnout rate by African-Carolinian's. The white turnout rate was only a mere 47%, because many were split about both John and Jager.

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door: Governor George Wallace attempts to block the enrollment of black students at the University of Alabama.

John quickly was able to undo Jager's executive orders and passed a law through the Gearkomste which limited what executive orders could be used for. He then pushed the 4th, 5th, and 6th amendments through the Gearkomste which were nearly unanimously approved. Jager fought for the integration of African-Carolinian's into schools and brought segregation to an end, sometimes having to federalize the National Guard to force integration.

Carolina became a founding member of NATO however did not enter into either the Korean War or the Vietnam War. John saw no reason to enter into a foreign war when Carolina had problems at home that needed to be solved. The country tended to stay out of the Cold War until 1962, when Soviet Missiles were brought to Cuba. During that time, Carolina cut off all diplomatic ties with Cuba, and helped the United States to enforce a naval blockade of the island. In response Cuba threatened to target Miami, Atlanta and Savanne should Carolina not back down. Castro also encouraged people to rise up against Carolina in order to bring a new communist government. In a show of force, the United States placed nuclear missiles in the Florida Keys and the Warsiene Islands under a sharing program. Kennedy also sent American ships to the Florida Key's and was granted access to use Carolinian ports should an war occur. Carolina, the Soviet Union, and the United States all began negotiations to end the crisis, which resulted in US missiles being taken from the Florida Keys and the Warsiene Islands, as well as in Italy and Turkey in exchange for the Cuban Missiles being removed. A new secure hotline was also set up between Savanne, Washington, and Moscow to increase communication.

At home, Carolina experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. The Warsiene Islands became a state in 1963, making it the second to last state to be admitted to Carolina. Carolina also launched it's own War on Poverty under President Burke in the 1980's.

Despite the United States' stalled economic growth in the 1980's, Carolina continued to see it's economy rise with cities like Atlanta, Charlotte, Miami, and Bayonne la Vella becoming important business centers. Carolina began warming relations with countries like China, the USSR, Vietnam, and several Warsaw Pact Nations bringing an end to it's fierce dislike of communist countries. In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed, with Carolina quickly establishing relations with newly democratic countries. This has made Carolina and important economic and military ally to nation in Eastern Europe. Carolina has tried to establish itself as a regional superpower over the last two decades enjoying excellent relations with both First World nations but also with countries in Africa, East Europe, South America, and the Mid-East.

Contemporary History

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Carolina was able to enjoy excellent relations with Eastern European Countries, helping to aid their economies. The country saw a period of recession from 1989 to 1992 with the decline of the manufacturing industry, but a period of growth from 1992 to 1994 aided by the growing high-tech industry. The country entered into the Gulf War in 1991 to protect the countries' oil interests and to prevent another oil shortage.

On May 4, 1994 terrorists used several car bombs to destroy the Siniege Bay Bridge in Siniege, Alabama. Over 125 people died when the 2.1 mile bridge collapsed, and cars plunged into the bay. Al-Qaeda was blamed for the attack but never took responsibility. The attack led to increased security nationwide, especially in public places and at airports.

Beginning in 1994, Carolina entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the Carolina, Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.

The Olympic flag waves at the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta

Carolina hosted the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, which were meant to show the progression of Carolina from a rural society to a modern, global one.

Carolina entered into the War on Terror shortly after the United States, mainly due to the September 11 Attacks in the United States. Carolina declared war on Afghanistan on October 14, 2001 and entered into the Iraq War in 2003.

Carolina entered into the Great Recession in January of 2008. The recession was the second worst in the history of Carolina, only preceded by the Great Recession. During the time, the unemployment rate in Carolina skyrocketed to 15.5%. The recession was declared to be over in March of 2010. The recovery from the recession has been supported by the high-tech industry sector and clean manufacturing. In 2016, Carolina elected Nikki Haley as president, making her the first woman and first Indian-Carolinian President. On November 3, 2016 the CCAG used several bombs to destroy the State Gearkomste Building in West Tennessee, as well as hijacking an aircraft operated by AvianAir. The plane successfully landed at Rochefort-Evers International Airport where the pilot/hijacker was killed. Over 500 people were killed in the dual attacks.

Geography

Bottomland hardwood swamp near Ashland, Mississippi
Amalie, Warsiene Islands, with Amalie Bay in the distance.

Carolina is 580,454 square miles making it the 19th largest country in the world for total area. Carolina is located in the southeastern area of Central North America, south and east of the United States and north of Cuba. The majority of Carolina is part of the humid subtropical climate zone, identified in the Köppen Climate types. However sections of the Appalachian Mountains in western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia and Qualla, are a part of the oceanic climate. Most of South Florida and the Warsiene Islands are part of either the Savannah or Monsoon Tropical Climates.

The area along the Atlantic Seaboard is mostly flat, and coastal areas are home to many inland marshes. Heading west toward Piedmont, the flat landscape gives away to the rolling hills and deciduous forests of the area. The Appalachian Mountains provide a divide between western and eastern Carolina. The Appalachian region is characterized by a cooler climate a moderate sized mountains. Continuing west, the Great Valley of eastern Tennessee brings back the rolling hills found in the Piedmont Region. The land continues to be very similar to that of the Piedmont throughout Tennessee. The western border of Carolina is defined the Mississippi River, a major north-south river that flows through the United States and partially through Carolina. The river is navigable and is was historically used to transport goods from Memphis south to New Orleans or the western Gulf port cities.

Southern Carolina and the Florida's typically are very flat, with the Appalachian Mountains turning to rolling hills in southwestern Georgia and northwestern Alabama. In Florida, the land is nearly completely flat with many swamps and inland lakes characterizing the area. Several inland bays such as Tampa Bay and Charlotte's Harbor are found along the Floridian coastlines.

The Warsiene Islands are a group of mostly flat islands found off the southwestern coast of South Florida. The islands share a similar landscape to that of the Florida Keys and nearby Cuba, with a long sandy coastline and a flat interior. The Warsiene Islands were not volcanic, rather it is believed that they were at one point part of Florida during the ice age when the Floridian Peninsula extended several hundred miles from where it is today.

Wildlife

The ecology of Carolina is very diverse, partially due to the ranging climates of the nation. Florida, South Florida, and the Warsiene Islands are home to the countries more tropical plants and animals. The endangered American Crocodile can be found only along the tip of South Florida and in the Warsiene Islands. The much more populous American Alligator can be found along the southern and eastern coasts, and are often associated with Floridian wildlife. Deer are very populous in central and northern Carolina, and their abundance leads to a popular deer hunting season in Carolina. However they can cause problems, especially with motor vehicles. Carolina is also home to animals such as the Floridan Panther a critically endangered species native to the Everglades. The Florida Panther is the national mammal, voted in 2003 replacing the Black Bear. The Bald Eagle, which is a breeding resident of eastern Carolina, is a national symbol of Carolina as well as being the national bird.

Carolina's fauna is equally as diverse ranging from tropical plants in the southern portion of the nation, to more deciduous plants in the northern half. Palm Trees are abundant and found along the Carolinian coastline and throughout the Florida's. Pine Trees are abundant throughout Carolina, and the Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) is the national tree of Carolina. The rare Venus flytrap is only native to North Carolina and South Carolina.

Carolina only has 7 National Parks, 1 in North Carolina, 1 in South Carolina, 1 in Tennessee, 2 in the Warsiene Islands, and 3 in South Florida. The largest National Park is Everglades National Park in South Florida. There are many state parks that are found throughout Carolina, which are owned and maintained by the individual states and not the national government.

Demographics

Population

The Carolinian Department of the Census estimates that in 2016 the population of Carolina was 60,304,593 people. That is up from 60,101,753 in 2010. Carolina and the United States are the only major industrialized nations, where large population growth is expected. Carolina is expected to be the 24th most populous country in the world, nearly in line with the population with Italy. By 2020, Carolina is expected to grow to 61,500,000 which could mean that it could surpass Italy in the current decade. The birthrate of Carolina was not recorded until the 1910 Census when women were having 4.02 children. That has since decreased 1.89 children in 2010. Foreign Born population and immigration has allowed Carolina's population to continue to increase through recent years. Carolina saw the largest number of immigrants in 2015 when 406,837 immigrant applications were approved. Many of these came from Western Europe, Asia, and Latin America. American, Canadian, Friegan, French, and UK citizens do not need a visa to move or visit Carolina. Those same citizens along with Cuban citizens are also eligible for automatic citizenship. Carolina has taken in many Cuban refugees, many of which have fled by boat and landed in either South Florida or the Warsiene Islands. Cuban Immigrants are considered refugees because of the continuing Cuban Embargo. Carolina accepts immigrants from most of the world, except for "blacklisted countries". However, Carolina's immigration system is rigorous, designed to only allow the best immigrants in. Carolina has also withdrawn from recent Middle Eastern refugee resettlement despite outcries from refugees to have Carolina open it's doors to resettlement.

Largest metropolitan areas in Carolina by population (2012 Estimate)
Name State Population Name State Population
Miami
Miami

Atlanta
Atlanta

Bayonne la Vella
Bayonne la Vella

Orlando
Orlando

Miami South Florida 6,654,565 Greensboro North Carolina 1,642,506
Atlanta Georgia 6,365,108 Wilhelmsville Florida 1,573,606
Bayonne la Vella Alabama 4,602,591 Grienville South Carolina 1,384,996
Orlando FloridaSouth Florida 3,110,906 Memphis West Tennessee 1,369,548
Savanne Carolina Capital District-Georgje-South Carolina 3,110,905 Birmingham Alabama 1,309,818
Tampa-St. Petersburg South Florida 2,975,225 Knoxville Tennessee 1,091,370
Charlotte North Carolina 2,583,956 Cape Coral-Fort Myers South Florida 977,720
Charleston South Carolina 2,557,062 Nij Heide (New Heide) Warsiene Islands 976,372
Raleigh North Carolina 2,117,103 Chattanooga Tennessee 936,142
Nashville Tennessee 1,951,644 North Port-Sarasota South Florida 917,203
A large portion of Carolina's populations lives along the east coast and the "eastern states" of Florida, Georgia, Georgje, North Carolina, South Carolina and South Florida. The most populous state in Carolina is often disputed between North Carolina and South Florida, as each state has similar populations. The Florida's have the highest population density of Carolina, and 6 of the top 20 largest metro areas are in the Florida's. Miami, the countries largest metro area is found in South Florida.

Education

According to a 2012 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Carolina is the among the most educated countries in the world;[225] the country has a high number of adults having tertiary education, with 41 percent of Carolinian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree.[225] [226] Carolina invests fairly large amount of it's budget toward education. The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than 16 000 USD per student).[227] As of 2014, 79 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent. Carolina is considered not allowing high school kids to drop out at 16, requiring them to complete their high school education. President Nikki Haley has expressed support for this bill dubbed the Complete Package Act.

Ethnicity

According to the 2010 Census, the largest group of Carolinian self-identified as White (69.1%). That was followed by African Carolinian (22.1%), Asian (2.3%). Native Americans comprised 1.2% of the population. 8.4% identified as Hispanic or of Hispanic origin.

Language

A variety of languages are spoken by Carolinian's, however the nations main three mother tongues, Atlantsiike (derived from West Frisian), English, and French are the first language of around 91% of Carolinian's. Cherokee is not a national language, however is considered a mother-tongue in Carolina, used officially by Qualla. The largest, non-mother-tongue of Carolina is Spanish, which comprises another 6% of Carolinian first languages. German, Swedish, Frisian, Chinese (mainly Mandarin), and Portuguese are common first languages among the other 2% of Carolinian's. Most of these people are immigrants to Carolina, however Swedish and German pockets and towns do exist in North Carolina and Georgia.

Atlantsiike is the primary language of central and eastern Carolina, primarily spoken in Florida, Georgia, Georgje, and South Carolina. Atlantsiike is different from most languages spoken in Carolina, in that it was derived from West Frisian, however through diffusion with English and French, became it's own language. Today almost all of the original "Frisian Speaking Areas" defined in 1820 have become part of the Atlantsiike speaking area. South Carolina has seen the largest growth in Atlantsiike, with a nearly 43% increase in native speakers between 1900 and 2010. Atlantsiike is taught in all Carolinian Primary and Secondary Schools, and all Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an Atlantsiike speaking student.

English is the primary language of northern Carolina. It is the only official language of North Carolina but is also an official language in Georgia, South Florida, and Tennessee. Most public documents throughout Carolina are written in English along with Atlantsiike and French. The English language in North Carolina has attracted many American and Canadian immigrants throughout the past 50 years, who have come to Carolina looking for a job in the growing economy. English is taught in all Carolinian Primary and Secondary Schools, and all Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an English speaking student.

French, or Cajun is the official language of most of western Carolina. Cajun French or French is an official language in Alabama, Mississippi, and West Tennessee, however is recognized as a "primary minority language" in Georgia, and Tennessee. French was originally brought to Carolina by the French colonization of western Carolina, known as the French Colony of Bilox. Overtime the French language has evolved, primarily through diffusion with Atlantsiike/West Frisian. French is taught in all Carolinian Primary and Secondary Schools, and all Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an French speaking student.

Cherokee is not recognized as a national language of Carolina, due to the small size of the area it is spoke in, however if considered a mother-tongue in Carolina. Cherokee is nearly exclusively used in the state of Qualla, and is found throughout the state. The Cherokee language of Carolina is considered to be more original than the version in Oklahoma, often considered American Cherokee. That is because the Cherokee of North Carolina have been confined to their current state for over two centuries, while most of the American Cherokee have picked up either French or English influences from their move in the 1820's. Cherokee is taught as a second language in some high-level high schools, however is not commonly found. All Tertiary Schools larger than 5,000 students must have an ability to accommodate an Cherokee speaking student.

Spanish is considered a common language in Carolina, however is not considered an official language or a mother-tongue. Spanish has been present in Carolina since the Spanish takeover of the Warsiene Islands in 1689. More recently, Spanish is being brought to Carolina from Cuban refugees and Latin American immigrants. Most primary and secondary schools teach Spanish as a second language, however native Spanish speakers are expected to learn the native tongue of their region. Therefore, colleges and universities do not have to provide accommodations for Spanish speaking students.

Frisian, German, Swedish and Chinese are all found in Carolina, however only make up a very small percentage the population. In the 2012 National Education Standards of Carolina, learning another native Carolinian tongue (Atlantsiike, English, French) other than their own, is a requirement to receive a high school diploma or GED.

Religion

The Carolinian Constitution guarantees the free practice of religion, and says that the practice of religion can not be obstructed by the government. However the Gearkomste can and has passed a bill to make Christianity the official religion of Carolina. This is highly debated in Carolina with some advocating for Carolina to have no official religion. Carolina is a deeply Christian nation, with nearly 87% of the population identifying as Christians. Of that 87%, 73% identify as protestant and 27% identify as Catholic or another branch of Christianity. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism, and the Southern Baptist Convention is the largest individual Protestant denomination. About 26% of Carolinian's identify as Evangelical Protestants, while 15% are Mainline and 7% belong to a traditionally Black church. Roman Catholicism in Carolina originates from Spanish and French colonization of the Americas, and later grew because of Irish, Italian, Polish, German and Hispanic immigration.

Most of Carolina is a part of the North American Bible Belt, which stretches from North Carolina to West Texas and south from Orlando to central Virginia.  Socially conservative Evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. South Florida is considered the major outlyer to this, which is seemingly less religious than the rest of Carolina.

Government and Politics

The Federal Republic of Carolina is a federal republic, and is considered the world's oldest federation, dating back to 1745 when Freiga ordered the colonial federation of Carolina. However the modern government of Carolina only dates to 1884. The country is a constitutional republic and representative democracy. The government is regulated by checks and balances that are defined in the Constitution of 1884 (formally "The People's Constitution of the Federal Republic Carolina and it's dependencies") and the document serves as the highest law document of the nation. The High Court of Carolina is the countries top court.

In Carolina, citizens are usually subjected to 3 levels of government, national, state, and local (either parish or city). All government officials in Carolina are voted in by popular vote.

The National Government of Carolina is split up into three branches: Legislative: The bi-cameral Gearkomste, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes national laws, approves treaties, approves the budget of Carolina, and the power of impeachment. Executive: The President of Carolina is the commander-in-chief of the military, can declare war, can veto legislative bills (subject to Gearkomstian override), appoints members of the cabinet (subject to Gearkomstian approval) along with other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies, except for High Court judges. Judicial: The High Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by popular vote on 10 year terms, but can be impeached by the Gearkomste. Interpret and overturn laws that are unconstitutional. They also have the power to hear cases that have been appealed multiple times.

Diagram Showing the Current Seats held in the Carolinian House of Representatives. CFP-174, NCP-127
Diagram Showing the Current Seats held in the Carolinian Senate. CFP-23, NCP-13, Independent-1

The House of Representatives is based on population with districts that are evaluated by a Special Gearkomstian Committee based on census data. Districts contain a population of 250,000 and are drawn upon geographic boundaries to avoid gerrymandering. In the event of an overage, the state's population is divided equally into new districts. No states contain the minimum amount of representatives, which is 1. Currently North Carolina contains the most representatives, followed by South Florida. Representatives serve 4 year terms, and 1/3 of the House of Representatives is voted upon every two years.

The Senate is based on equal representation, with 3 members of the senate per state. Currently there are 36 members of the senate. Members of the senate serve 6 year terms, and 1/3 of the senate is up for election every two years.

The President of Carolina is voted on by popular vote. They serve four year terms.

One-third of Federal Judges are up for election every 4 years, and each judge serves for 12 years. There are currently 11 High Court judges in the Carolinian High Court.

States are structured in the same fashion with the exception of Qualla which was been given an exception because of culture differences. In the other 11 states, the Governor is the chief executive, with the State Legislature (GA, NC, TN, SC, SF) or the State Gearkomste being the legislative branch. Cities and towns are also structured in a similar fashion with a mayor, city-council, and city-court system. However city court justices have terms of only 4 years.

The Constitution of Carolina is the original constitution of Carolina, and is the highest document of law in the nation. The original constitution defines the government of Carolina, along with basic civil rights. It has been amended 12 times, with the most recent being in 2007.

Political Divisions

Carolina is a federal republic, made up of 12 states and once federal district. The states are the principal administrative districts in the country. The Carolina Capital District is the federal district, containing the national capital, Savanne. Carolina does not recognize tribal sovereignty, but instead allows for Native Americans to conduct their own affairs in the state of Qualla. Tribal Sovereignty ended in 1978, when the Gearkomste passed the 7th amendment abolishing the last Native American reserve and transferring the land to North Carolina. Widespread protests led the Gearkomste to create the state of Qualla and allow them to operate under a new semi-unique government. The state still had to have a governor, legislative branch, and judicial branch, however could make new rules surrounding those bodies. The exception was made in the 8th amendment.

Political Parties

Carolina has, for the most part operated under a two party system for it's entire history. The only exception was in 1948 when the CRWP won the presidential election with Helmich Jager. The center-right party, the Carolina Federal Party (or CFP) was formed in 1863 by those who wanted Carolina to be made into it's own federal republic. The center-left party, the New Carolinian Progressives or NCP was formed in 1901 after the disintegration of the Carolina Liberal Alliance. Carolina generally sees large long term shifts in it's political environment. Up to 1932 the CFP has a dominant position in the country, however from 1932-1948 the NCP had the dominate positon. The CRWP was considerably the beginning of another political shift, however Jager's extreme segregational policies placed NCP member Thomas John into the presidency for another 8 years. The CFP had the dominate position from 1960 to 2008 with the exception of a period of 8 years in the 1980's The election of Jackson Heinemann in 2008 saw the first shift toward liberalization, however in 2016 the election of Nikki Haley still showed the dominance of the CFP. However politics in Carolina has progressively become more central with a slight right lean. This was evident through the latter part of Heinemann's presidency.

The winner of the 2016 Presidential Election, Nikki Haley (CFP) is the current president of Carolina. Current leadership in the senate include vice-president Marco Rubio, majority leader Richard Burke, and minority leader Sherry Washington. Current leadership in the house include Speaker of the House Chelsea Graham, majority leader Finnick McConnell, and minority leader Sabrina Gonzalez.

Foreign Relations

Carolina has an established system of foreign relations, being a member of the United Nations, G20, and the OECD. Almost all nations have an embassy in Savanne, and many have consulates throughout the nation. Likewise nearly all nations host Carolinian diplomatic missions in their countries. Carolina does not currently any relations with Cuba, Iran, North Korea, or the Republic of China (although Carolina still maintains relations with Taiwan). The nation has also cut all diplomatic relations with the government of Syria and backs the rebels. Carolina retains relations with Chad, Central African Republic, Somalia, and Yemen however due to security concerns, has removed their embassy staff from the nation.

Carolina has a "Special Relationship" with Friega, and is very close with the United States, and Canada. Carolina also maintains close relations with Australia, New Zealand, Israel, Japan, South Korea and many European Union nations, mainly France, Germany the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the quadrilateral North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada, Mexico, and the United States. In 2008, the United States spent a net $12.7 billion on official development assistance. As a share of Carolina's large gross national income (GNI), however, the Carolinian contribution ranked last in a study among 23 donor states. Carolina is selective with it's refugee programs. It is a major source of Cuban "refugees" however has opted out of the international effort for Syrian refugees.

Taxes

Taxes in Carolina are levied at the federal, state and local government level. These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. Carolina's tax code went under major simplification in 2011 to cut-out loop holes in the code. The simplification has allowed Carolina to make it's first surpluses since 2004. Under the code the top 1% of the population pays roughly the same as they did in the previous code (about 35%). However middle and lower classes got a unforeseen tax break, with their income taxes lowering to just 10%. Those who live below the poverty line do not pay taxes. The lower income taxes are supplemented with a national 10% sales tax. Business taxes are unconceivably low in Carolina, with high taxes on industrial and other dirty industries. Several important industries such as the automotive industry get very high taxes. Import taxes in Carolina are high in Carolina, except for NAFTA members and other countries with free-trade agreements including Santa Catarina and some EU members. Before the new tax code, some companies would import goods to the United States and then to Carolina, however the new code ended this with point-of-export taxes.

Military

The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Offense. The Carolinian Department of Armed Forced administers the Army, Navy, and Air Force of Carolina. The Coast Guard is run by the Carolinian Navy. Carolina has approximately 450,000 troops on active duty, but has around 1.1 million in reserves. Military service in Carolina is voluntary, with conscription being abolished in 1988. Carolina had previously used the draft in World War 1 and World War 2. Carolina's military is able to be deployed rapidly, with the many air forces bases, and 4 aircraft carriers. The military operates about 204 bases both domestically and internationally. The military budget of Carolina was around $103 Billion CGU (1 CGU=1.03 USD), and was about 4.7% of the national GDP. Proportionally Carolina spends about the same amount on the military as the United States. Carolina has increased it's global military presence throughout the latter half of the 20th century and the 21st century, however is selective on which wars it participates in. Carolina typically follows the United States into a war, as evident in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars.

Infrastructure

Road Transportation

A modern Interstate in downtown Atlanta, GA

Transportation in Carolina is dominated by automobiles, which operate on one of the world's largest highway networks. The world's third largest car market, Carolina has 790 vehicles per 1,000 people making Carolina the highest per capita vehicle ownership rate in the world. Around 50% of these vehicles are vans, SUV's, or trucks.

Carolina's road network is one of the most extensive in the world, and comprises of the Interstate Highway System, National Highway System, and State and Local Highways. Generally even numbered routes are routed east-west and odd numbered routes are routed north-south however some routes do not follow this rule. The Interstate Highway System is a joint-system with the United States, which has created a high-speed limited access freeway system throughout Carolina. Carolina is still rapidly expanding it's Interstate highway program, in order to keep up with it's rapidly expanding population. the National Highway system was created in 1931 during the Great Depression, and is usually associated with the US Highway System in which it's numbers are linked up with. However, unlike the Interstate Highway System, the National Highway System has developed within Carolina, and only has recently been linked up with the United States. In 1973 a redo of National Highway numbers was made to correspond to the routes and number system of the United States. State highway networks were created individually by each state, and are built and maintained by their respective state. Thus, each system has developed on it's own, however many states have collaborated to keep numbers the same across borders.

Rail Transportation

Rail Transportation is relatively new in Carolina and is only recently growing in ridership due to the creation of GoSpoar. Intercity rail generally does not work very well in Carolina because of the low population density throughout much of the interior of the country. However Carolina collaborated with SBB of Mikenstein and FS of Friega and has since created a new rail system called GoSpoar. Since then, rail ridership is up 64% in Q2 of the 2017. Carolina also has several other private railroad systems that operate inter-city rail transportation, among them are Carolina SunSpeed Rail and All Aboard Florida. Amtrak offers several services within Carolina that link up to the United States.

CSX Transportation is the largest freight railroad transporter within Carolina and owns approximately 60% of all freight rail tracks within Carolina. However Memphis Eastern, and Riveria System have gained significant market coverage over CSX. CN, Norfolk Southern and BNSF also have railroad tracks that operate within Carolina.

Air Transportation

The civil airline industry of Carolina is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1966. The Treaty of Kansas City in 1982 allowed fifth freedom rights to Carolinian and US airlines to fly within the other's country, after airlines such as Pan American World Airways and Delta Air Lines worked their way around international laws. However, most airports within Carolina remain publicly owned, and operated by their respective municipality. The second largest airline in the world, Delta Air Lines is Carolinian based. Of the world's 50 busiest airports, four are located in Carolina, including Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, which is the largest airport in the world.