Calaré

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Crowned Republic Of Calaré
Choróin Poblacht an Calaré
Motto: Orta recens quam pura nites
(Latin: Newly risen, how brightly you shine)
Anthem: I vow to thee my country
Royal anthemGod save the King
Capital
(and largest city)
Wollongong
34°25.59′S 150°52.59′E / 34.4265°S 150.8765°E / -34.4265; 150.8765
Official language(s) English, Gaeilge
Recognised national languages English, Gaeilge, Daughrawal, Wiradjuri
Demonym Calaréann
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
 -  King HM Aodhan I
 -  Taoiseach
(Prime Minister)
Mr Nathan Rush TD
 -  Tánaiste
(Deputy Prime Minister)
Mr Brock Inglis TD
Legislature Oireachtas
 -  Upper house Seanad Calaréann
 -  Lower house Dáil Calaréann
Formation
 -  Colonisation 26th January 1788 
 -  Statehood 1st June 1976 
 -  War of Independence 1995 - 2000 
 -  Independence 31st October 2001 
 -  Admission to UN 1st March 2002 
 -  Joined AIN 1st January 2010 
Area
 -  Total 155,500 km2 
60,039 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 5.7
Population
 -  2013 Q4 estimate 10,157,961 (16th in AIN)
 -  2014 Q2 census 10,513,490 
 -  Density 67.61/km2 
175.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $212.0 billion 
 -  Per capita $22,581 
HDI (2013) 0.971 (very high) (1st in AIN)
Currency Crown (₡) (CCN)
Time zone CST (UTC+10)
 -  Summer (DST) CDT (UTC+11)
Date formats d/m/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the left
Simlympic code DCR
Internet TLD .ce
Calling code +693, +694


The Crowned Republic of Calaré is an independent constitutional monarchy comprised of ten provinces. The nation is located on the South Eastern coast of the Australasian continent. Its neighbours are Australia to the north, West and South with the Commonwealth of Venray and the Republic of Arcacia to the North East.

Calaré is a unitary state currently reigned over by King Aodhan I. The Capital and largest city is Wollongong, it is the seat of government and home to the Monarchy. The country is made up of ten provinces: Cabonne, Eurobodalla, Flinders, Illawara, Lachlan, Macquarie, Monaro, Orana, Oxley and Wollondilly the most populous of which is Illawara.

The republic is a highly developed nation, and has a particularly long history with the arrival of the indigenous aboriginal population approximately 40,000 years ago. Calaré's economy is highly industrialised and the city of Wollongong is an important centre for regional financial, industrial and service based markets. Calaré is a member of the Alliance of Independent Nations, the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization , APEC , and the Pacific Islands Forum. Calaré is a founding member of the Tasman Group and a Providence Accord signatory.


Etymology

The origin of the name Calaré comes from the Wiradjuri Aboriginal name for the Lachlan River, which runs through the western part of the Country. The name has two pronunciations; the Kul-air pronunciation which was established under Australian rule and the actual Wiradjuri pronunciation Kal-ah-ree ,which since Independence has been established as the correct way to pronounciate the word, as a mark of respect to the indigenous people of the country.

History

Main Article: History of Calaré

History of Calaré
New-Calare-Coat-of-arms.png
This article is part of a series
Key Events
Colonisation
Australian Statehood
Calaréann War of Independence
United Nations Administration
Independence
Six Day War
Post Independence
Topics
Demographic history
Diplomatic history
Economic history
Indigenous History
Military history
Political history

Calaré Portal


Government

The Governance of Calaré is heavily influenced by the Westminster System, which Calaré inherited from Australia upon gaining independence in 2001. This has given Calaré a framework of strong democratic traditions, which have developed their own unique flavour that is not seen anywhere else in the world. Since independence, the governance of Calaré has taken place within a constitutional framework of monarchy and parliamentary democracy.

The administration of Calaré is ordered by the Constitution of Calaré which lays down the powers of the various branches of government. The constitution is the supreme document of law, and all subsequent laws and customs are subordinate to it. Also specified by the Constitution are the various rights and freedoms enjoyed by all Calaréanns. The head of state is the hereditary Rí na Calaré, while the role of head of the government is filled by the Taoiseach.

The Calaréann Parliament building with its grand Georgian facade and dome.

As a parliamentary democracy, the executive is dependent on the direct support of the Oireachtas- Parliament, which is expressed through a vote of confidence in the Dail Calaréann-House of Representatives. Without the support of the lower house, the Monarch cannot ask an individual to form an administration as Prime Minister and therefore recommend the appointment of a ministry. The life of the Parliament is limited, and must be dissolved every three years so as to allow the election of a new body of members to both houses.

Politics

The politics of Calaré takes place within the framework of a parliamentary democracy. There are two levels of Government, the Central Government and the ten devolved Provincial Governments. The primacy of the Central Government is unchallenged and the Provincial Governments exist at the discretion of the Central Government.

Political Parties

For more, see Political parties of Calaré.

Calaré has a variety of political parties and interest groups that claim and attempt to represent the community. The party system is well entrenched, although Calaré does not have a two-party system like some countries, but instead could be best categorised as a three-party system. Over the last forty years, a number of smaller parties have controlled the balance of power and used it moderate the government of the day. Additionally, there are a variety of smaller political parties that do not have elected members of parliament, but still contribute to the political process via policy submissions, lobbying, and political campaigns.

Elections

For more, see Elections in Calaré.

By law, elections must be held every three years for both houses of Parliament and every four years for each of the ten provinicial governments. Calaré maintains a complex electoral system to ensure democracy for all, and to give all people a voice in the election and in the running of government.

Unlike many nations, voting in every election, plebiscite, and referendum is compulsory for all people over the age of eighteen.

Political Issues

For more, see Political issues of Calaré.

At any time, a range of issues dominate the political sphere of the nation. With the assistance of the media, many issues are brought to the attention of leaders, and also to the people. Calaréann's are highly conscious of their society and much of the political discourse revolves around issues affecting it.

Calaréann Defence Force

The military defence of Calaré is managed by the Calaréann Defence Force or CDF. The Commander-in-Chief of the CDF is HM The King, although command is in practice exercised by the Prime Minister. Day to day command is managed by the Joint Defence Headquarters and the Ministry of Defence.

The primary mission of the Calaréann military is the "Defence of the people and interests of the Republic". The force is charged with the protection of Calaré against attack and through Calaré's external treaties participates in international deployments and operations.

Economy

For more, see Economy of Calaré.

The economy of Calaré is one of the fastest developing, modern market economies in the world, with a GDP of approximately US$818 billion. Calaré's total wealth is US$3.451 trillion dollars. In 2011, it was the 18th largest national economy by nominal GDP and the 28th largest measured by PPP adjusted GDP, representing about 1.48% of the World economy. Calaré was also ranked the 34th largest importer and 24th largest exporter. Calaré has 4 times more adults earning over US$100 000 than the worldwide average. In 2011 the average middle aged adult had a net worth of over US$350 000, making Calaréanns per capita some of the wealthiest people in the world.

The Calaréann Crown is the national currency. The Calaréann Stock Exchange is the 3rd largest exchange in the Australasian region, located in Wollongong. Local, regional and major international stocks can be traded on the Exchange, with the CSX reaping the benefits of a regional partnership with the Singapore Stock Exchange.

Historically, Calaré's economy before independence revolved around agriculture, manufacturing and mining and was more geared toward the domestic Australian market. In the last 12 years, the focus has greatly shifted towards more high tech manufacturing, defence manufacturing, banking, energy and tourism an is increasingly an export driven market.

Trade

Calaré is large exporting nation, with exports totaling 40% of GNP. Calaré's main exports are agriculture, chemicals, defence manufacturing, high tech manufacturing, mining, steel and industrial equipment. Calaré exports approximately 60% of its agricultural produce and over the last 12 years has built up strong export markets for its minerals and manufacturing sectors. Calaré's major trading partners are Arcacia, Ascadylea, Atlantic Federation, Cattala, Hiigara, Illu'a, Killorglin, Lower Columbia and Shushtrepistaz.

Geography

Calaré has a combined area of 155,500km2, which includes all of the mainland of Calaré, as well as Montague Island. It is situated on the South Eastern seaboard of the Australian Continent, it takes in the territory south of the New South Wales capital of Sydney and to the north of the Australian capital of Canberra in a contiguous band from the coast to the western interior. The country is located between latitudes 32°76' to 36°44'S and longitudes 147°87' to 150°78'E.

Calaré is split between east and west - in the east the coastal plains and Great Dividing range dominate the landscape, while in the west great plains extend over vast distances. In the central areas, mountainous hills and valleys form the divide between the plains of the western provinces and the eastern provinces along the coastal fringe.

The country has a population of approximately 9.8 million people, making it the second most populous country in Australasia. It has a population density of 63 people per squared kilometre and therefore is the 148th most dense nation on earth.

Flora and Fauna

Calaré has several remnant forest areas that interlink, including the Blue Mountains national park, Belangalo State forest and several other forested areas of the Calaréann southern Highlands. The largest forested area is spread across the north-east of the country, and borders the Wollondilly and Macquarie provinces forming part of a natural border with Australia. The country shares a lot of similarities with Australia in terms of Flora and Fauna with Calaré also having some populations of vulnerable of plants and animals such as the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis).

Rivers

The rivers of Calaré can be divided into two categories, those that flow to the coast and those that flow inland. The largest group of the two is the inland rivers category, with the majority of the rivers in Calaré flowing inland into the Murray Darling these rivers tend to be long, slow moving and carry large amounts of water by Australasian standards. The second coastal group of rivers tend to shorter and discharge far smaller amounts of water into the Pacific Ocean.

Climate

Calaré can be divided into three climatic regions. The coastal fringe is oceanic having mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers and the inland separated into two regions with the central Highlands having cold, wet winters and mild summers, Whilst the western plains have mild winters and very hot summers.

Month January February March April May June July August Sept Oct Nov Dec
Average High (*C) 34 32 29 25 20 19 11 14 18 25 27 31
Average Low (*C) 18 17 16 14 17 2 4 6 13 13 14 17
Precipitation (mm) 22 37 24 50 30 62 55 48 40 38 35 14